Saturday, February 19, 2011

Alien UFO talk

Global, National, Local? Some Problems of Culture in a Postmodern World;jsessionid=86673B4C93828F230C1D0941BBB2BD4B.inst1_1a?docId=96530401

Global, National Local? Some Problems of Culture in a Postmodern World

Journal article by John Fiske; Velvet Light Trap, Vol. not cited, 1997

Journal Article Excerpt  See below...


Global, National, Local? Some Problems
of Culture in a Postmodern World
Scott Sassa, while president of the Turner
Entertainment Group, said in 1995,
Last summer, you had some movies that did over
US$100 million. And you had a lot of movies that
tanked well under $40 million. But you didn't have a
lot of midrange, $50 million movies. It's like they either
took off or they didn't. So, as the media gets more and
more fractionalized, there are going to be lots of smaller
movies and projects, and then there'll be one or two
giant hits that become part of pop culture. The "middle
class" of movie is going to be non-existent.1
We have to devise means of living peaceably in a world
without this "middle-class" level of experience, organi-
zation, and culture. While Sassa is explicitly talking about
the movies, he is actually talking about the countervailing
forces of globalization and localization that have become
the defining characteristics of the contemporary world.

Globalism, Localism, and Post-Fordism
The global flow of capital and the transnational move-
ment of labor are rapidly turning the European-derived
societies of the West into multiethnic, multicultural ones.
Globalization always provokes localization, and one
result of these forces has been the erosion of that middle
level of organization, the nation-state, and, consequently,
of a national culture. The nation-state is being eroded
from outside by globalization and from within by
subnational or transnational localization. Subnational, or
regional, conflicts often exist between ethnic groups with
histories far longer than that of the nation; they
currently produce huge flows of refugees that increase
the transnational movement of people. Diaspora, exile,
and immigration constitute the normality of a global
society. It has been predicted that anyone born today
will have a statistically abnormal life if he or she lives all
of it in their nation of birth. The statistics may be ques-
tionable, but the trend to which they point is not.
Immigration and emigration, whether forced or volun-
tary, will be the normal experience for huge numbers,
if not the majority, of the world's populations. If we
realize that those who do not migrate still experience
the social effects of migration, then we can say with full
certainty that everyone will experience an increasingly
fluid and changing social order. Unstable, multiethnic
societies will become the norm with which we have to
learn to cope.
In the United States, this is already inescapably part
of our everyday reality. A major demographic shift is
under way that, by the middle of the next century, is
likely to result in a society in which no racial group
constitutes the statistical majority. The population of
this country, for the last 250 years, has been at least 80
percent Caucasian, so the change for white Americans
is causing immense social anxiety that can only increase
as the demographic changes accelerate. In Los Angeles,
this part of our future is already here. European Ameri-
cans no longer form the majority of its citizens, and
before the decade is out, the same will be true of
California as a whole. It is already the case that white
children are no longer the majority in the California
school system.
The trend is not toward a melting pot with more
ingredients thrown into the stew, but rather toward
greater segmentation, both territorial and cultural. Many
observers have noted that the U.S. city is becoming one

of multiple, ethnically homogeneous, and socially sepa­
rate neighborhoods, sometimes as small as a block or
two. Raymond Rocco, the Chicano political scientist,
paints a vivid picture of the Los Angeles that results from
trends such as these:
Los Angeles is now a city that is characterized by a
sense of social fragmentation, a lack of center, multiple
communities with little or no sense of identification
with each other, extremes of affluence and poverty,
ambition and despair. In particular, in the area immedi­
ately surrounding the urban core, there are now dozens
of immigrant Third World communities. To the west,
centered around the corners of Western Avenue and
Olympic Boulevard is a virtual self-contained Korean
community. Again to the west, only a few blocks from
the financial district, the Pico Union area has been com­
pletely transformed into a Central American environ­
ment. Further to the south, around Figueroa and Mar­
tin Luther King Boulevards, neighborhoods that were
until six or seven years ago almost completely Afro-
American, now have entire blocks populated by Mexi­
can and Central American ...



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Psychophysics is a discipline within psychology that quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they affect. Psychophysics has been described as "the scientific study of the relation between stimulus and sensation"[1] or, more completely, as "the analysis of perceptual processes by studying the effect on a subject's experience or behaviour of systematically varying the properties of a stimulus along one or more physical dimensions".[2]
Psychophysics also refers to a general class of methods that can be applied to study a perceptual system. Modern applications tend to rely heavily on ideal observer analysis and signal detection theory.[3]



[edit] History

Many of the classical techniques and theory of psychophysics were formulated in 1860 when Gustav Theodor Fechner published Elemente der Psychophysik.[4] He coined the term "psychophysics", described research relating physical stimuli with how they are perceived, and set out the philosophical foundations of the field. Fechner wanted to develop a theory that could relate matter to the mind, by describing the relationship between the world and the way it is perceived. He was influenced by the work of German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber [5][6] Fechner's work formed the basis of psychology as a science. Wilhelm Wundt, the founder of the first laboratory for psychological research, built upon Fechner's work.
Fechner's work was studied and extended by Charles S. Peirce, who was aided by his student Joseph Jastrow, who soon became a distinguished experimental psychologist in his own right. Peirce and Jastrow largely confirmed the power-law research of Fechner, but rejected some aspects of Fechner's theory. In particular, a classic experiment of Peirce and Jastrow rejected Fechner's estimation of a threshold of perception of weights, as being far too high. In their experiment, Peirce and Jastrow in fact invented randomized experiments: They randomly assigned volunteers to a blinded, repeated-measures design to evaluate their ability to discriminate weights.[7][8][9][10] Peirce's experiment inspired other researchers in psychology and education, which developed a research tradition of randomized experiments in laboratories and specialized textbooks in the eighteen-hundreds.[7][8][9][10] The Peirce–Jastrow experiments were conducted as part of Peirce's pragmatic program to understand human perception; other studies considered the perception of light, etc.[11]
More modern approaches are divided into three large camps: Likert scaling, signal detection theory and power law theory. Power law theory is named after psychophysicist Stanley Smith Stevens (1906–1973). Although the idea of a power law had been suggested by 19th century researchers, Stevens is credited with reviving the law, creating new methods of magnitude estimation, magnitude production and cross modality matching to create its scales and publishing a body of psychophysical data to support it.
Omar Khaleefa[12] has argued that the medieval scientist Alhazen should be considered the founder of psychophysics. Although al-Haytham made many subjective reports regarding vision, there is no evidence that he used quantitative psychophysical techniques and such claims have been rebuffed.[13]

[edit] Thresholds

Psychophysicists usually employ experimental stimuli that can be objectively measured, such as pure tones varying in intensity, or lights varying in luminance. All the senses have been studied: vision, hearing, touch (including skin and enteric perception), taste, smell and the sense of time. Regardless of the sensory domain, there are three main areas of investigation: absolute thresholds, discrimination thresholds and scaling.
A threshold (or limen), is the point of intensity at which the participant can just detect the presence of, or difference in, a stimulus. Stimuli with intensities below the threshold are considered not detectable (hence: sub-liminal). Stimuli at values close enough to a threshold will often be detectable some proportion of the time; therefore, a threshold is considered to be the point at which a stimulus, or change in a stimulus, is detected some proportion p of the time. There are two kinds of thresholds: absolute[14] and difference.[6]

[edit] Detection

An absolute threshold is the level of intensity of a stimulus at which the subject is able to detect the presence of the stimulus some proportion of the time (a p level of 50% is often used). An example of an absolute threshold is the number of hairs on the back of one's hand that must be touched before it can be felt – a participant may be unable to feel a single hair being touched, but may be able to feel two or three as this exceeds the threshold. Absolute threshold is also often referred to as detection threshold.

[edit] Discrimination

A difference threshold is the magnitude of the difference between two stimuli of differing intensities that the participant is able to detect some proportion of the time (again, 50% is often used). To test this threshold, several different methods are used. The subject may be asked to adjust one stimulus until it is perceived as the same as the other, may be asked to describe the magnitude of the difference between two stimuli, or may be asked to detect a stimulus against a background.
In discrimination experiments, the experimenter seeks to determine at what point the difference between two stimuli, such as two weights or two sounds, is detectable. The subject is presented with one stimulus, for example a weight, and is asked to say whether another weight is heavier or lighter (in some experiments, the subject may also say the two weights are the same). At the point of subjective equality (PSE), the subject perceives the two weights to be the same. The just-noticeable difference (JND), or difference limen (DL), is the magnitude of the difference in stimuli that the subject notices some proportion p of the time (50% is usually used for p).
Absolute and difference thresholds are sometimes considered similar because there is always background noise interfering with our ability to detect stimuli, however study of difference thresholds still occurs, for example in pitch discrimination tasks.[5][15]

[edit] Experimentation

In psychophysics, experiments seek to determine whether the subject can detect a stimulus, identify it, differentiate between it and another stimulus, and describe the magnitude or nature of this difference.[5][6]

[edit] Classical psychophysical methods

Psychophysical experiments have traditionally used three methods for testing subjects' perception in stimulus detection and difference detection experiments: the method of limits, the method of constant stimuli and the method of adjustment.[16]

[edit] Method of limits

In ascending method of limits, some property of the stimulus starts out at a level so low that the stimulus could not be detected, then this level is gradually increased until the participant reports that they are aware of it. For example, if the experiment is testing the minimum amplitude of sound that can be detected, the sound begins too quietly to be perceived, and is made gradually louder. In the descending method of limits, this is reversed. In each case, the threshold is considered to be the level of the stimulus property at which the stimuli is just detected.[16]
In experiments, the ascending and descending methods are used alternately and the thresholds are averaged. A possible disadvantage of these methods is that the subject may become accustomed to reporting that they perceive a stimulus and may continue reporting the same way even beyond the threshold (the error of habituation). Conversely, the subject may also anticipate that the stimulus is about to become detectable or undetectable and may make a premature judgment (the error of anticipation).
To avoid these potential pitfalls, Georg von Békésy introduced the staircase procedure in 1960 in his study of auditory perception. In this method, the sound starts out audible and gets quieter after each of the subject's responses, until the subject does not report hearing it. At that point, the sound is made louder at each step, until the subject reports hearing it, at which point it is made quieter in steps again. This way the experimenter is able to "zero in" on the threshold.[16]

[edit] Method of constant stimuli

Instead of being presented in ascending or descending order, in the method of constant stimuli the levels of a certain property of the stimulus are not related from one trial to the next, but presented randomly. This prevents the subject from being able to predict the level of the next stimulus, and therefore reduces errors of habituation and expectation. The subject again reports whether he or she is able to detect the stimulus.[16] Friedrich Hegelmaier described the method of constant stimuli in a 1852 paper [17]. This method allows for full sampling of the psychometric function, but can result in a lot of trials when several conditions are interleaved.

[edit] Method of adjustment

The method of adjustment asks the subject to control the level of the stimulus, instructs them to alter it until it is just barely detectable against the background noise, or is the same as the level of another stimulus. This is repeated many times. This is also called the method of average error.[16] In this method the observer himself controls the magnitude of the variable stimulus beginning with a variable that is distinctly greater or lesser than a standard one and he varies it until he is satisfied by the subjectivity of two. The difference between the variable stimuli and the standard one is recorded after each adjustment and the error is tabulated for a considerable series. At the end mean is calculated giving the average error which can be taken as the measure of sensitivity.

[edit] Adaptive psychophysical methods

Often, the classic methods of experimentation are argued to be inefficient. This is because, in advance of testing, the psychometric threshold is usually unknown and a lot of data has to be collected at points on the psychometric function that provide little information about its shape (the tails). Adaptive staircase procedures can be used such that the points sampled are clustered around the psychometric threshold. However, the cost of this efficiency is that you do not get the same amount of information regarding the shape of the psychometric function as you can through classical methods. Despite this, it is still possible to estimate the threshold and slope by fitting psychometric functions to the obtained data, although estimates of psychometric slope are likely to be more variable than those from the method of constant stimuli (for a reasonable sampling of the psychometric function).[16]

[edit] Staircase procedures

Staircases usually begin with a high intensity stimulus, which is easy to detect. The intensity is then reduced until the observer makes a mistake, at which point the staircase 'reverses' and intensity is increased until the observer responds correctly, triggering another reversal. The values for these 'reversals' are then averaged. There are many different types of staircase, utilising many different decision and termination rules. Step-size, up/down rules and the spread of the underlying psychometric function dictate where on the psychometric function they converge. Threshold values obtained from staircases can fluctuate wildly, so care must be taken in their design. Many different staircase algorithms have been modeled and some practical recommendations suggested by Garcia-Perez.[18]

[edit] Magnitude estimation

In the prototypical case, people are asked to assign numbers in proportion to the magnitude of the stimulus. This psychometric function of the geometric means of their numbers is often a power law with stable, replicable exponent. Although contexts can change the law and exponent, that change too is stable and replicable. Instead of numbers, other sensory or cognitive dimensions can be used to match a stimulus and the method then becomes "magnitude production" or "cross-modality matching". The exponents of those dimensions found in numerical magnitude estimation predict the exponents found in magnitude production. Magnitude estimation generally finds lower exponents for the psychophysical function than Likert scaling, because of the restricted range of the categorical Likert scales.[19]

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Gescheider G (1997). Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. ix. ISBN 080582281X.
  2. ^ Bruce V, Green P R, Georgeson M A (1996). Visual perception (3rd ed.). Psychology Press.
  3. ^ Gescheider G (1997). "Chapter 5: The Theory of Signal Detection". Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 080582281X.
  4. ^ Gustav Theodor Fechner (1860). Elemente der Psychophysik (Elements of Psychophysics).
  5. ^ a b c Snodgrass JG. 1975. Psychophysics. In: Experimental Sensory Psychology. B Scharf. (Ed.) pp. 17–67.
  6. ^ a b c Gescheider G (1997). "Chapter 1: Psychophysical Measurement of Thresholds: Differential Sensitivity". Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 080582281X.
  7. ^ a b Charles Sanders Peirce and Joseph Jastrow (1885). "On Small Differences in Sensation". Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 3: 73–83.
  8. ^ a b Hacking, Ian (September 1988). "Telepathy: Origins of Randomization in Experimental Design". Isis 79 (A Special Issue on Artifact and Experiment): 427–451. doi:10.1086/354775. JSTOR 234674.MR1013489.
  9. ^ a b Stephen M. Stigler (November 1992). "A Historical View of Statistical Concepts in Psychology and Educational Research". American Journal of Education 101 (1): 60–70. doi:10.1086/444032.
  10. ^ a b Trudy Dehue (December 1997). "Deception, Efficiency, and Random Groups: Psychology and the Gradual Origination of the Random Group Design". Isis 88 (4): 653–673. doi:10.1086/383850.
  11. ^ Joseph Jastrow, "Charles Peirce as a Teacher" in The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, v. 13, n. 26, December, 723–726 (1916). Google Books and text-string search: Jastrow wrote the following summary: "Mr. Peirce’s courses in logic gave me my first real experience of intellectual muscle. Though I promptly took to the laboratory of psychology when that was established by Stanley Hall, it was Peirce who gave me my first training in the handling of a psychological problem, and at the same time stimulated my self-esteem by entrusting me, then fairly innocent of any laboratory habits, with a real bit of research. He borrowed the apparatus for me, which I took to my room, installed at my window, and with which, when conditions of illumination were right, I took the observations. The results were published over our joint names in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. The demonstration that traces of sensory effect too slight to make any registry in consciousness could none the less influence judgment, may itself have been a persistent motive that induced me years later to undertake a book on The Subconscious."
  12. ^ Omar Khaleefa (1999). "Who Is the Founder of Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology?". American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 16 (2).
  13. ^ Aaen-Stockdale, C.R. (2008). "Ibn al-Haytham and psychophysics". Perception 37 (4): 636–638. doi:10.1068/p5940. PMID 18546671.
  14. ^ Gescheider G (1997). "Chapter 2: Psychophysical Measurement of Thresholds: Absolute Sensitivity". Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 080582281X.
  15. ^ Gescheider G (1997). "Chapter 4: Classical Psychophysical Theory". Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 080582281X.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Gescheider G (1997). "Chapter 3: The Classical Psychophysical Methods". Psychophysics: the fundamentals (3rd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 080582281X.
  17. ^ Laming, Donald; Janet Laming (1992). "F. Hegelmaier: On memory for the length of a line". Psychological Research 54 (4): 233-239. doi:10.1007/BF01358261. ISSN 0340-0727. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
  18. ^ Garcia-Perez, MA (1998). "Forced-choice staircases with fixed step sizes: asymptotic and small-sample properties". Vision Res 38 (12): 1861. doi:10.1016/S0042-6989(97)00340-4. PMID 9797963.
  19. ^ Stevens, S. S. (1957).. On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review 64(3):. pp. 153–181. PMID 13441853.

[edit] References

  • Steingrimsson, R.; Luce, R. D. (2006). "Empirical evaluation of a model of global psychophysical judgments: III. A form for the psychophysical function and intensity filtering". Journal of Mathematical Psychology 50: 15–29. doi:10.1016/
  • Stevens, S. S. (1957). On the psychophysical law. Psychological Review 64(3):153–181. PMID 13441853.
This page was last modified on 8 February 2011 at 15:59.

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Top 10 Rare & Amusing Insults

#1: Cockalorum


a boastful and self-important person; a strutting little fellow

About the word:

If cockalorum suggests a crowing cock, that's because cockalorum probably comes from kockeloeren – an obsolete Dutch dialect verb meaning "to crow."

#2: Lickspittle


a fawning subordinate; a suck-up

About the word:

Lick plus spittle says it all: someone who licks another person's spit is pretty low indeed. Incidentally, lickspittle keeps company with bootlicker ("someone who acts obsequiously").

#3: Smellfungus


an excessively faultfinding person

About the word:

The original Smelfungus was a character in an 18th century novel. Smelfungus, a traveler, satirized the author of Travels through France and Italy, a hypercritical guidebook of that time.

#4: Snollygoster


an unprincipled but shrewd person

About the word:

The story of its origin remains unknown, but snollygoster was first used in the nasty politics of 19th century America. One definition of the word dates to 1895, when a newspaper editor explained "a snollygoster is a fellow who wants office, regardless of party, platform or principles...."

#5: Ninnyhammer


ninny; simpleton, fool

About the word:

The word ninny is probably a shortening and alteration of "an innocent" (with the "n" from "an" getting transferred to the noun) and "hammer" adds punch. Writers who have used the word include J.R.R. Tolkien in the Lord of the Rings trilogy: "You're nowt but a ninnyhammer, Sam Gamgee."

#6: Mumpsimus


a stubborn person who insists on making an error in spite of being shown that it is wrong

About the word:

Supposedly, this insult originated with an illiterate priest who said mumpsimus rather than sumpsimus ("we have taken" in Latin) during mass. When he was corrected, the priest replied that he would not change his old mumpsimus for his critic's new sumpsimus.

#7: Milksop


an unmanly man; a mollycoddle (a pampered or effeminate boy or man)

About the word:

Milksop literally means "bread soaked in milk." Chaucer was among the earliest to use milksop to describe an unmanly man (presumably one whose fiber had softened). By the way, the modern cousin of milksop, milquetoast, comes from Caspar Milquetoast, a timid cartoon character from the 1920s.

#8: Hobbledehoy


an awkward, gawky young man

About the word:

Hobbledehoy rhymes with boy: that's an easy way to remember whom this 16th century term insults. Its origin is unknown, although theories about its ancestry include hobble and hob (a term for "a clownish lout").

#9: Pettifogger


shyster; a lawyer whose methods are underhanded or disreputable

About the word:

The petti part of this word comes from petty, meaning "insignificant" (from the French petit, "small").
As for fogger, it once meant "lawyer" in English. According to one theory, it may come from "Fugger," the name of a successful family of 15th- and 16th-century German merchants and financiers. Germanic variations of "fugger" were used for the wealthy and avaricious, as well as for hucksters.

#10: Mooncalf


a foolish or absentminded person

About the word:

The original mooncalf was a false pregnancy, a growth in the womb supposedly influenced by a bad moon. Mooncalf then grew a sense outside the womb: simpleton. It also morphed into a literary word for a deformed monster. For instance, in Shakespeare's The Tempest, Stephano entreats Caliban, "Mooncalf, speak once in your life, if thou beest a good mooncalf."

What is Paraphysics?

Return to List of Articles
                                                                           What is Paraphysics?

The physical sciences are traditionally based upon a shared belief that it is possible to explain all natural phenomena within the context of matter and motion, against a four-dimensional background of space and time. As physics is primarily concerned with exploring interactions taking place between energy and matter within the physical world, it is assumed that all natural phenomena will ultimately be found to be physical in nature. Any observable phenomena, which can't be explained within the context of current physical theories or the prevalent scientific worldview, must be classified as paranormal, being caused by unknown extraneous factors that can neither be weighed nor measured.

However, no existing physical theory is capable of providing a satisfactory explanation for the presence of consciousness in a human brain or the participatory role that an observer plays in quantum physics. Neither can it explain paranormal phenomena, such as Psychokinesis, Telepathy, Remote viewing, Clairvoyance, Out-of-body experiences, Spiritual healing or account for the possibility of Life after death.     

More advanced physical theories, such as ‘String theory’ have attempted to explain multidimensional phenomena beyond Einstein's four-dimensional space-time. String theory attempts to address the mystery of the multidimensional nature of reality by hypothesizing the existence of hyperspaces, which exist beyond the perceptual boundaries of the physical senses. Ultimately, it is believed that such a single unified theory will eventually be capable of explaining everything there is to explain.
Paraphysics explores the nonphysical aspects of reality and is therefore considered to be the ‘physics of the paranormal’. Although the phenomenon it studies is not explainable within the context of current physical theories, paraphysics is nevertheless considered to be an extended branch of physics as it applies to the study of parapsychological phenomena. One of its primary concerns is the nature of the subtle relationships that exist between psychic and physical processes occurring in living organisms, which are different than those occurring in inanimate matter.
Although conventional physics and paraphysics both study natural phenomena, the real difference between them is the level at which the explanation of physical reality occurs. Paraphysics attempts to find a more fundamental level of reality than matter, energy and motion. Although these two divergent branches of physics are very specialized, it is generally believed by many paraphysicists that it is possible to expand the boundaries of current physical theories to include all paranormal phenomena beyond the present interests of science.

Because of recent developments in Quantum physics there is an increasing scientific interest in exploring these paraphysical frontiers, incorporating new theories and philosophical ideas, many of which first appeared in the ancient texts of the Far East. Essentially, paraphysics can be defined as a branch of physics which explores these outer boundaries of knowledge where conventional science fears to tread, with its main goal being the theoretical unification of the spiritual, psychological and physical aspects of our existence.

   © 2010, D. H. Wolfraim, Paraphysics Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Tucson Shooting Victim Arrested For Threatening Tea Party Leader

Tucson Shooting Victim Arrested For Threatening Tea Party Leader

James Fuller.
James Fuller.
Sixty-three year-old James Eric Fuller, who was shot during last week's shooting in Arizona and survived, was arrested following a town hall meeting yesterday for taking a picture of tea party leader Trent Humphries and yelling, "You're dead!" Fuller apparently became upset after Humphries suggested that conversations about gun control be delayed until all the victims of the shooting were buried. The event was taped for a special edition of ABC’s This Week. Fuller was detained on misdemeanor disorderly conduct and threat charges. Deputies decided he needed a mental health evaluation, and he was taken to a hospital, which will determine when he will be released.
Yes, Fuller is also the guy who told reporters after the shooting, “It looks like Palin, Beck, Sharron Angle and the rest got their first target." He had campaigned for Giffords during her re-election. He said he attended the "Congress on Your Corner" event where the shooting occurred to "give [Giffords] a boost and to protect her from the tea party crime syndicate and to shout them down." Following the shooting, he also remarked, "Why would [Giffords] attend an event in full view of the public with no security whatsoever? She lived under constant fear of this rhetoric and hatred that was seething."
Since the shooting, Fuller has reportedly been calming himself by writing out the Declaration of Independence, which he memorized 30 years ago. Surprisingly, that didn't work. Of the threat, Humphries said: "My hope continues to remain that we as a community be allowed the ability to heal and focus on those things that will best help our city and its citizens recover from this deadly tragedy."
Tucson victim arrested for threat [Politico via Gothamist]
Earlier: Tucson Shooting Victim Is Just Going to Blame This on Sarah Palin Anyway

Iran to send aid ships to Gaza

Iran to send aid ships to Gaza
Two ships carrying aid to the Gaza Strip will try to breach Israel's blockade in coming week.
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2010 13:19 GMT
A flotilla of ships trying to break the blockade of Gaza was stopped by Israel last month [EPA]
Two Iranian vessels carrying aid supplies are due to set sail for Gaza in the coming week, in a move likely to further heighten tensions in the region.

Iranian news media reported on Tuesday that four tonnes of humanitarian aid, including food, medicine and clothing would be sent to Gaza within coming days.

"This ship will pass through territorial waters of Oman, Yemen and Egypt before it reaches Gaza. It is said that the ship contains only humanitarian aid and there are no peace activists on board," Iran's semi-official Mehr news agency reported.

Meanwhile, the official Irna news agency cited Mohammad Ali Nouraee, an Iranian aid official, as saying one cargo will be sent to Turkey, and then shipped to Gaza from Istanbul while the other will leave from the port of Khorramshahr.
Iranian flotilla

Nouraee said that the ships would sail without protective security because the Iranians "do not want to fight".
His comments came after General Hossein Salami, the deputy commander of Iran's Revolutionary Guard denied a report on Monday that its naval forces would escort the Iranian ships, Iran's Fars news agency reported.
Abdul Rauf Adibzadeh, the Red Crescent director for international affairs, told Irna that the vessels will carry "food, medication and medical equipments".
He said the Red Crescent has called for Iranian volunteers to act as relief workers and accompany the vessels.
"Volunteers who want to go to Gaza and help the people of the occupied Palestine can register through the Red Crescent website," he said.

Israeli warning
However, Mark Regev, a spokesman for the Israeli prime minister's office, told Al Jazeera that Iran has ulterior motives.
"[Iran] has an interest in bolstering the Hamas government ... obviously we are trying to prevent them from sending weapons to Hamas"
Mark Regev,
Israeli government spokesman

"The regime in Iran is the prime ally of Hamas in Gaza and they have consistently tried to send to Gaza more deadly weapons, rockets and missiles that are used against the people of Israel and Israeli civilians," he said.
"And of course they have an interest in bolstering the Hamas government and in trying to undermine Israel's naval blockade. Obviously we are trying to prevent them from sending weapons to Hamas."

Al Jazeera's Ayman Mohyeldin, reporting from occupied Jerusalem, said the Israeli government position had been consistent throughout regarding any ship that tried to break the blockade on Gaza.

"The Israeli government is reiterating that no ship would be allowed into Gaza's territorial waters to offload any kind of cargo," he said.

Egyptian waters
The news of the Iranian aid ships comes just two weeks after the Israeli navy attacked a Turkish flotilla of ships trying to break Israel's blockade of Gaza.

Nine activists on the Mavi Marmara - the flotilla's largest boat - were killed in the attack on May 31.

Our correspondent said the Iranian vessels, unlike the Turkish flotilla, would not be sailing into Gaza through international waters.

"The Iranian ships will not be in international waters but instead in Egyptian waters and then technically in Gaza's territorial waters - which are under the control of the Israeli navy," he said.

"[This is] unlike the Turkish flotilla, which entered international waters when the raid happened. Therefore these Iranian ships will be subject to Egyptian naval control and ultimately when they get into Gaza will have to face the Israeli navy."
In January 2009, an Israeli warship approached an Iranian aid boat heading for the Mediterranean territory and told it to leave the area, 70kms from Gaza.

The ship went on to Egypt, which borders Gaza, but was refused permission to unload.

However this time, Mahmoud Ahmadi-Biqash, an Iranian member of parliament, said on Sunday that the Egyptian government had agreed to issue visas to 70 Iranian parliamentarians who had registered to travel to the Gaza Strip.
Al Jazeera and agencies


-view CSL mobile version -

Webring Translator Thingamajig

Well, you've scrolled to the bottom, press start and help CSL for free!