Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Freedom Works


Take Action and Stop the Lame Duck Tax Hikes

Dear Readers,

There's good news and bad news in this lame duck session. The good news is that thanks to your phone calls and emails, GOP leaders are lining up behind earmark bans in both the House and the Senate. Just today, Sen. Mitch McConnell said "the people have spoken - and I'm listening" and that he will support an earmark moratorium.

Getting rid of earmarks is an important first step toward cutting the spending in Washington and it looks like we've met the first post-election challenge for the tea party movement. But our fight is far from over.

It's clear that grassroots action can make a big difference, even when the opposition is a group of lawmakers on the way out, desperate to pull out all the stops to enact their socialist agenda. Now that the liberals have been thrown out of power in Congress, the pressure is that much greater on Harry Reid and Nancy Pelosi in these last weeks.

The Bush-era tax cuts are about to expire and taxes could shoot up for millions of Americans already struggling in the current economic downturn. The election was clear: Washington has a spending problem, not a fudning problem. Tax hikes would hurt the economy even further.

Take Action Button and tell Congress: No Lame Duck!

Unfortunately, getting rid tax cuts aren't the only thing on Pelosi's Big Government Wish-List before she exits the Speaker's office. She, and Harry Reid would still like to pass the cap and trade energy tax, slap the American taxpayers with another "Stimulus" bailout, pile on more tax hikes to fund their socialist agenda, and allow the death tax to come back next year at 55%.

Tax hikes, bailouts, and more big government spending in the face of the recent election would amount to little more than a violation of the will of the people. "We the People" spoke with our votes and we said "We want less - lower taxes, less spending, less government."

Congress should stop the out-of-control spending, not try to raise taxes. One of the best places to start reigning in the spending is the bloated EPA budget. This agency's budget has grown exponentially more than any other government agency and should be first on the list for a serious spending diet.

Take Action Buttonand tell your lawmakers: No Lame Duck!

According to a Rasmussen poll, 65 percent of voters oppose a lame-duck session because it would trample on our founding documents, mute the voice of the people and disregard the final results of the November election. Now that the election is over, congressional leaders should act with the dignity their office demands and refuse to pass controversial legislation until the new Congress is sworn in next January.

Thank you for your ongoing vigilance on behalf of more freedom. Keep up the great work.


Kibbe Signature
Matt Kibbe
President and CEO, FreedomWorks

Tuesday, November 16, 2010

Surrender Versus Control: How Best Not to Drink

Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology

Volume 13, Number 3, September 2006

E-ISSN: 1086-3303 Print ISSN: 1071-6076
DOI: 10.1353/ppp.2007.0020
Surrender Versus Control: How Best Not to Drink
DOI: 10.1353/ppp.2007.0020
In lieu of an abstract, here is a preview of the article.
I recall as a teenager noticing that some people modified nouns in, what sounded to me, a peculiar way. A friend's mother who was taking an automotive repair course said, " We're going to learn to fix the brakes next week." The same folks would also use the possessive for common nouns in phrases like: "I'll be ready after I take my shower." Although not incorrect, I believe this type of usage reflected a different attitude about brakes, showers, and other things. These tended to be more hands-on people and thus, in my understanding at least, had a more particular relationship with things in their world than others for whom objects were examples of types of things.
This brief vignette serves as an introduction to my qualified enthusiasm for the project taken up by Allison Mitchell in her paper, "Taking Mentality Seriously: A Philosophical Inquiry into the Language of Addiction and Recovery" (Mitchell, 2006). Indeed, as a practicing psychiatrist I would be hard pressed not to endorse the use of language as a key to deeper aspects of experience.
My following remarks are mostly contra Mitchell's hypothesis, but before beginning I name one more reason I think this project is worthwhile. In spite of much research and recitations of the motto "treatment works," we do not presently have a reliable treatment for addiction. The linguistic portrait painted by Mitchell allows us to view our treatments in vivo and reflect upon what we see. (For the purpose of this commentary, I consider alcoholism and Alcoholics Anonymous [AA] as a general example of addiction and treatment.)
Medication treatment remains almost inconsequential except when applied for comorbid psychiatric disorders rather than the primary addiction. Even then it rarely serves to undo some form of self-medication, but instead only offers an important leg up in battling the addiction.
Research and much experience has shown AA to be the
addiction, Alcoholics Anonymous, will, St Augustine

When "Cool" Got Cool

When "Cool" Got Cool

It's hard to imagine the English language without the word cool as a colloquial description of someone or something first-rate. Over the past half-century of usage, the word has become so omnipresent that it has lost much of its slangy patina. Slang-watcher Connie Eble noted here that when she asks her students at the University of North Carolina to list items of slang, they don't even think of cool, since "it's just ordinary vocabulary for them." How did cool first break through to the mainstream?
Because of the ubiquity of cool, it's easy to surmise that it has always been with us in its now-familiar form. When it comes to language, our minds usually work the other way: if we have encountered a word or phrase only recently, we tend to think that it must be new to everyone else, too. Stanford linguist Arnold Zwicky has called this the Recency Illusion. The flip side to the Recency Illusion is the Antiquity Illusion, when we assume relatively new expressions are much older than they actually are. A good example is "the whole nine yards," an idiom that has only been dated back to the early 1960s, despite various claims of a much earlier origin.
Cool fell victim to the Antiquity Illusion not too long ago in a lengthy debate on the letters page of The Times (UK) Literary Supplement. As I discuss in my "On Language" column in this Sunday's New York Times Magazine, the debate was sparked by a TLS reviewer who took a translator to task for using cool in its slangy sense, despite the book's setting in the 1930s. In my column I explain how the TLS letter writers misinterpreted older examples of cool with anachronistically modern readings.
Cool is an old word, of course, and leading up to the 20th century it had developed an array of meanings from "calm and dispassionate" to "audaciously impudent." But it took the jazzmen of the 1940s to transform it into the universal sign of approval that we know and love. The writer Zora Neale Hurston might have presaged the jazz world's adoption of the word when she used the phrase "whut make it so cool" several times in the mid-'30s, but it could be argued that she was still drawing on the older "audacious" meaning of cool.
In jazz circles, cool (as in "That's cool," "He's cool," or simply "Cool!") first came to be associated with sax player Lester "Pres" Young in the early '40s. The breakout year in terms of its appearance in mainstream publications came in 1948, when The New Yorker reported, "The bebop people have a language of their own... Their expressions of approval include 'cool'!" That same year, music critics picked up on the use of cool to describe a new, more relaxed style of jazz. "Hot jazz is dead. Long live cool jazz!" announced The Bridgeport Telegram, while Life profiled Dizzy Gillespie as a "trumpeter who is hot, cool and gone" (a description that must have baffled most of Life's readers at the time).
Cool's big crossover to white teenagers happened about four years later. A June 1952 article about teen slang in the St. Joseph, Michigan Herald-Press explained that "to be 'cool' is the desire of every teen-ager." It also turned up that year in a now-hilarious film called "Young Man's Fancy," sponsored by the Edison Electric Institute, which you can watch online here and here. The protagonist Judy, a slang-slinging teenybopper, calls her crush "really cool" — and even better, "a real cool Jonah." (Not for nothing did this film get the wise-cracking treatment from the cult favorite "Mystery Science Theater 3000.")
Cool has ebbed and flowed a bit over the years, losing some of its luster in the '60s before coming back on a wave of retro nostalgia in the '70s. (Think of Arthur Fonzarelli of "Happy Days" and Danny Zuko of "Grease" — those would-be Brandos — as the avatars of retro-cool.) By now it's become a permanent fixture in English around the world, continuing to spawn books (The Book of Cool, Birth of the Cool, The Birth (and Death) of the Cool) dedicated to deconstructing the word and the cultural concept behind it. Its lasting appeal is perhaps due to what the linguist Donna Jo Napoli has called its "underspecified" nature, allowing it to adapt to a myriad of contexts. No question about it, cool is in no danger of cooling off.
Update: My "On Language" column is now online here. You can also hear me talk about cool and other recent column topics on WNYC's "The Brian Lehrer Show."
Part of the interview is available on YouTube:

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The Devil's Discus

The Devil's Discus

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The Devil's Discus  
Author Rayne Kruger
Country England
Language English
Subject(s) Crime, Politics, Psychology, History
Genre(s) Non-fiction
Publisher Cassell & Co., Ltd.
Publication date 1964, Second Edition 2009
Media type Print Hardcover/Paperback (Second Edition)
Pages 260 p.
ISBN 978-988-97752-5-4 (Paperback, Second Edition)
The Devil's Discus is an investigation into the death of King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) of Siam (later Thailand) by English-South African author Rayne Kruger.[1]



[edit] Book summary

The book comprises four main sections which are each further divided into chapters. The section “Before” serves as an introduction to King Ananda’s death, to Siam and to King Ananda’s background.
The next section “The Life and Death of Ananda” is ten chapters in length and details the main events of King Ananda’s life, from his birth in Heidelberg in 1925 to his death by a single gunshot in mysterious circumstances at Bangkok’s Royal Palace on 9 June 1946. This section introduces the main characters surrounding Ananda throughout his life and who subsequently become subjects for investigation following his death.
“The Trial” is the fourth section of eight chapters that summarises the events and arguments of the subsequent regicide trial against three Palace officials. Including two appeals the trial lasted more than six years and resulted in the execution of all three defendants in 1955.
The final section “Who Killed Ananda ?” is Kruger’s own analysis of the evidence surrounding Ananda’s death leading him to the conclusion that the only satisfactory explanation is suicide. He supports this theory with the revelation of a love affair between the young King and a fellow law student in Switzerland, Marylene Ferrari, a relationship which would not have been acceptable to Siam’s Royalist institutions.

[edit] Publication history

The Devil's Discus was first published in 1964 by Cassell. The Thai government banned the book as soon as it was published and Kruger was banned from further entry to Thailand.[2]
A Thai translation of the book titled Kongchak Pisat (Thai: กงจักรปีศาจ) by Chalit Chaisithiwet (Thai: ร.อ.ชลิต ชัยสิทธิเวช) was produced for submission as evidence in a 1970 defamation lawsuit brought by Pridi Banomyong against MR Kukrit Pramoj and his newspaper Siam Rath. The translator was the elder brother of Pridi's secretary, Vacharachai Chaisithiwet. It was secretly published by two Thammasat students in 1974 and reprinted in 1977, and circulated behind closed doors in Thailand. A local printing house involved with this Thai edition was burnt down.[3] This translation was eventually officially banned in May 2006.[4]
Through the organisation Freedom Against Censorship Thailand (FACT),[5] the English text was reprinted in November 2009 by DMP Publications, Hong Kong.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Kruger, Rayne The Devil's Discus: The Death of Ananda King of Siam. DMP Publications. ISBN 978-988-97752-5-4.
  2. ^ The Times, Obituaries, Rayne Kruger, 1 January 2003
  3. ^ The Daily Telegraph, Obituaries, Rayne Kruger, 9 January 2003
  4. ^ "คำสั่งเจ้าพนักงานการพิมพ์ ที่ ๓/๒๕๔๙ เรื่อง ห้ามการขาย หรือจ่ายแจกและให้ยึดสิ่งพิมพ์" (in Thai). Royal Gazette 123 (Special 73 ง): 31. June 27, 2006. 
  5. ^ Freedom Against Censorship Thailand (FACT)

[edit] See also

Censorship in Thailand
This page was last modified on 30 June 2010 at 11:40.

Kylesa And Clutch Announces Dates For U.S Mini-Tour

Kylesa And Clutch Announces Dates For U.S Mini-Tour

Progressive sludge metal act Kylesa and hard rockers Clutch have announced a small batch of co-headlining tour dates for the United Stated. Support on the mini-tour will come from Righteous Fool. You can view the list of confirmed dates, cities and venues below:
12/27 Richmond, VA – The National
12/28 Clifton Park, NY – Northern Lights
12/29 Cleveland, OH – House Of Blues
12/30 Cincinnati, OH – Bogarts
12/31 Asheville, NC – The Orange Peel

WMG Become Full Owners Of Roadrunner Records

Headline News

WMG Become Full Owners Of Roadrunner Records

Photo of Slipknot Band Photo: Slipknot (?)
It has been announced that Roadrunner Records, one of the industry's longest running metal and hard rock labels, has now been fully purchased by Warner Music Group. Warner had previously bought 73.5% of the company in 2007. An internal memo from label founder and CEO Cees Wessels announcing the changes, as appearing on Billboard's website, can be read below:
"Since joining the Warner Music family, we have enjoyed some of our greatest creative and commercial successes as a label. Most importantly, we have retained our unique identity while also expanding our horizons, thanks in part to the tremendous expertise and experience we can tap into as part of the Warner Music family and the relationships we have built with our Warner Music colleagues around the world.
"I am very proud that Roadrunner is now a fully-fledged stable mate of such iconic labels as Atlantic , Warner Bros. Records, Elektra, Asylum and Rhino, and I believe that we are in this position thanks to our team’s hard work and consistently original approach over the years. The vast majority of our staff around the world will experience little or no change to their roles.
"However after carefully reviewing our operations, we have decided to transfer the support functions across to our Warner Music colleagues in some territories. This is not an easy process to undertake, but we believe that, by making these changes, we can take Roadrunner to the next level by focusing our resources on marketing our existing line-up of acclaimed artists as well as discovering the stars of tomorrow."
Source: Billboard

VA – 101 Indie Classics 5CDs

Another guranteed triumph for the million selling 101 series, is 101 Indie Classics. Celebrating 20 years of Indie music this will feature the seminal tracks that define the genre, from Blur, to Coldplay, to Radiohead, The Verve and much more besides… 101 Indie Classics captures the essence of bands that shaped the genre.

Track List:
Disc 1
  1. Viva La Vida – Coldplay
  2. Sweet Disposition – The Temper Trap
  3. Hallelujah – Jeff Buckley
  4. We Are The People – Empire Of The Sun
  5. Kids – Mgmt
  6. Men’s Needs – The Cribs
  7. Standing In The Way Of Control – Gossip
  8. Our Velocity – Maximo Park
  9. Take Her Back – Pigeon Detectives
  10. Sticks ‘N’ Stones – Jamie T
  11. Heavyweight Champion Of The World – Reverend & The Makers
  12. Always Where I Need To Be – The Kooks
  13. Happy Up Here – Röyksopp
  14. Ready For The Floor – Hot Chip
  15. Audacity Of Huge – Simian Mobile Disco
  16. Daniel – Bat For Lashes
  17. A&E – Goldfrapp
  18. After Hours – We Are Scientists
  19. Camera Talk – Local Natives
  20. The Heinrich Maneuver – Interpol
  21. Song Away – Hockey
  22. Poker Face – You Me At Six
Disc 2
  1. Galvanize – The Chemical Brothers
  2. Dare – Gorillaz
  3. Shot You Down – Audio Bullys Feat. Nancy Sinatra
  4. Banquet – Bloc Party
  5. Black & White Town – Doves
  6. Jerk It Out – Caesars
  7. Bohemian Like You – The Dandy Warhols
  8. Delivery – Babyshambles
  9. Spread Your Love – Black Rebel Motorcycle Club
  10. Stacy’s Mom – Fountains Of Wayne
  11. Love Me Like You – The Magic Numbers
  12. Naive – The Kooks
  13. Big Sur – The Thrills
  14. Come Home Billy Bird – The Divine Comedy
  15. Suddenly I See – Kt Tunstall
  16. Wires – Athlete
  17. You Held The World In Your Arms – Idlewild
  18. Freakin’ Out – Graham Coxon
  19. Hate To Say I Told You So – The Hives
  20. Here It Goes Again – Ok Go
  21. Ride – The Vines
  22. Take The Long Road And Walk It – The Music
Disc 3
  1. Lucky Man – The Verve
  2. Champagne Supernova – Oasis
  3. Creep – Radiohead
  4. Scooby Snacks – Fun Lovin’ Criminals
  5. Loaded – Primal Scream
  6. Can You Dig It? – The Mock Turtles
  7. Unbelievable – Emf
  8. There’s No Other Way – Blur
  9. Alright – Supergrass
  10. Saturn 5 – Inspiral Carpets
  11. Tubthumping – Chumbawamba
  12. Hobo Humpin’ Slobo Babe – Whale
  13. Nancy Boy – Placebo
  14. It’s The End Of The World As We Know It (And I Feel Fine) – R.E.M.
  15. The Only Living Boy In New Cross – Carter Usm
  16. Motorcycle Emptiness – Manic Street Preachers
  17. Everyday Is Like Sunday – Morrissey
  18. Yes – Mcalmont & Butler
  19. Wide Open Space – Mansun
Disc 4
  1. Karma Police – Radiohead
  2. Drinking In L.A. – Bran Van 3000
  3. Teardrop – Massive Attack
  4. Squares – The Beta Band
  5. Yellow – Coldplay
  6. A Song For The Lovers – Richard Ashcroft
  7. Silence Is Easy – Starsailor
  8. Just Like The Rain – Richard Hawley
  9. Extreme Ways – Moby
  10. Young Folks – Peter Bjorn & John Feat. Victoria Bergsman
  11. Moving – Supergrass
  12. Stars – Dubstar
  13. Walking Wounded – Everything But The Girl
  14. Hoppípolla – Sigur Rós
  15. Fishing For A Dream – Turin Brakes
  16. The Time Of Times – Badly Drawn Boy
  17. Toxic Girl – Kings Of Convenience
  18. The Otherside – Breaks Co-Op
  19. The Universal – Blur
Disc 5
  1. She Bangs The Drums – The Stone Roses
  2. Suedehead – Morrissey
  3. This Is How It Feels – Inspiral Carpets
  4. All Together Now – The Farm
  5. Pure – The Lightning Seeds
  6. Female Of The Species – Space
  7. Whippin’ Piccadilly – Gomez
  8. Just – Radiohead
  9. International Bright Young Thing – Jesus Jones
  10. Lenny Valentino – The Auteurs
  11. Animal Nitrate – Suede
  12. Tequila – Terrorvision
  13. Smile – The Supernaturals
  14. The One I Love – R.E.M.
  15. Late Night Radio – David Gray
  16. Getting Away With It – Electronic
  17. Enjoy The Silence – Depeche Mode
  18. Sexy Boy – Air
  19. Come Back To What You Know – Embrace

Sexiest Songs Ever

2CD set Pop music album called “Sexiest Songs Ever”, featuring 40 sexy songs, Enjoy!

Track List:
Disc 1/2
01. Shakira Feat. Wyclef Jean – Hips Don’t Lie (Featuring Wyclef Jean)
02. Ciara Feat. Justin Timberlake – Love Sex Magic
03. Christina Aguilera – Still Dirrty
04. Nelly Furtado Feat. Timbaland – Promiscuous
05. Jessica Simpson – With You
06. John Mayer – Your Body Is A Wonderland
07. The Darkness – I Believe In A Thing Called Love
08. The Veronicas – Take Me On The Floor
09. Third Eye Blind – Deep Inside Of You
10. George Michael – I Want Your Sex
11. Prince – Kiss
12. Tom Jones & Mousse T. – Sexbomb
13. Salt N Pepa – Let’s Talk About Sex
14. Alison Moyet – Love Resurrection
15. Samantha Fox – Touch Me (I Want Your Body)
16. Blondie – In The Flesh
17. Divinyls – I Touch Myself
18. Hot Chocolate – You Sexy Thing
19. Right Said Fred – I’m Too Sexy
20. Fox – S-S-S-Single Bed
Disc 2/2
01. Norah Jones – Turn Me On
02. Phyllis Nelson – Move Closer
03. Marvin Gaye – Sexual Healing
04. Tina Arena – Burn
05. Lionel Richie – All Night Long
06. Barry White;Gene Page – Love Serenade
07. Donna Summer – Love To Love You Baby
08. James Brown – Sex Machine (Get Up I Feel Like Being)
09. Teddy Pendergrass – Turn Off The Lights
10. Labelle – Lady Marmalade
11. Boyz II Men – I’ll Make Love To You
12. TLC – Red Light Special
13. The Pointer Sisters – Fire
14. Bryan Ferry & Roxy Music – Slave To Love
15. Al Green – Let’s Stay Together
16. Elvis Presley – Fever
17. Bob Dylan – Lay Lady Lay
18. Charlie Rich – Behind Closed Doors
19. Sammi Smith – Help Me Make It Through The Night
20. Dr. Hook – Sharing The Night Together

Mistakes Chronicled on Medicare Patients

Mistakes Chronicled on Medicare Patients

Published: Tuesday, 16 Nov 2010 | 11:12 AM ET
Text Size
By: Duff Wilson
The New York Times
One of every seven Medicare beneficiaries who is hospitalized is harmed as a result of problems with the medical care there, according to a new study from the Office of Inspector General for the Department of Health and Human Services.
The study said unexpected adverse events added at least $4.4 billion a year to government health costs and contributed to the deaths of about 180,000 patients a year.
vStock | Getty Images

In a single month, October 2008, the report estimated that some 134,000 Medicare patients experienced at least one adverse event, ranging from a temporary health setback to death, during a hospital stay. It said 44 percent of them were “clearly or likely preventable.”
That study cited hospital infections as a major source of problems, but the inspector general’s report found other events to be more common. The most frequent problems classified as adverse events, it said, were those related to medication, like excessive bleeding, followed by those related to patient care, like intravenous fluid overload, and those related to surgery and to infection.
The most serious events, like surgery on the wrong patient, amounted to less than 1 percent of the events tallied, according to Ruth Ann Dorrill, a team leader for the inspector general’s study group. Those are known as “never events” — the National Quality Forum, a leading nonprofit group, said they “should never occur in a health care setting.”
An American Hospital Association official, Nancy Foster, said the study highlighted the importance of improving procedures to prevent the medication errors and other problems described in the report.
“Hospitals and doctors and nurses are focused on preventing harm,” Ms. Foster, the association’s vice president of quality and patient safety, said on Monday. “But as this report suggests, we do have a ways to go before we are where we want our performance to be.”
The study involved expert reviews of a representative sample of 780 patient files. It is scheduled to be posted on the inspector general Web site on Tuesday.

Current DateTime: 09:26:05 16 Nov 2010
LinksList Documentid: 22528753
In a written response contained in the report, Dr. Carolyn M. Clancy, director of the federal Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, said the adverse events were affecting hospital patients at an “alarming rate” and promised to work to improve it.
Ms. Dorrill, a team leader for the study group, based in Dallas, said it was the seventh and most important of 10 reports on adverse events that the agency was doing in response to a health care law passed by Congress in 2006.
“There was a lot of momentum in the late ’70s, early ’80s when the patient safety movement started, and they wanted a progress check,” Ms. Dorrill said.
Kevin K. Golladay, the regional inspector general for evaluation and inspections, said: “We recommend a broader view of harm in a hospital.”
The report called for more oversight and financial incentives for hospitals to reduce errors. In its written response, Dr. Donald M. Berwick, administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, said it would aggressively pursue recommendations to broaden the definition of adverse events, monitor and prevent them.
The problem had gained widespread attention with a 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine, titled “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System.” That report cited studies using different methodology to estimate 44,000 to 98,000 Americans die each year as a result of preventable medical errors in hospitals.
The inspector general’s study was the first to obtain a statistically valid national incidence rate for adverse events in a hospitalized population, the officials said. Previous estimates had extrapolated data from more limited studies.

Jimmy Kimmel calls for National Unfriend Day

Jimmy Kimmel calls for National Unfriend Day

  • November 17 declared National UnFriend Day on Jimmy Kimmel Live show
  • Kimmel believes Facebook is cheapening the meaning of friendship
  • Admittedly, Facebook friending does seem to be out of control
(Mashable) -- Kimmel used Wednesday's episode of his Jimmy Kimmel Live show to declare November 17, 2010 National UnFriend Day [NUD] -- a new holiday he hopes will inspire Facebook users to unfriend the social networking contacts that aren't real friends.
Late night talk show host Jimmy Kimmel believes Facebook is cheapening the meaning of friendship.
"NUD is the international day when all Facebook users shall protect the sacred nature of friendship by cutting out any 'friend fat' on their pages occupied by people who are not truly their friends," according to the show's website.
Admittedly, Facebook friending does seem to be out of control.
Facebook was once the social networking site we chose over MySpace to connect with our real friends; but over the years, many of us have accumulated dozens, if not hundreds, of Facebook friends that are, in fact, not actually our friends.
Kimmel may have a point, but this rather funny joke of a holiday seems to be more a late night comedy sketch than an event manufactured out of real concern for the status of friendship.
Still, National UnFriend Day is good natured -- at least for those not being unfriended -- and we might even take the day to cut some friend fat of our own.
© 2010 All rights reserved.

Moscow mule

Moscow mule

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Moscow Mule
Moscow Mule as served at the Velvet Tango Room, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
Type Cocktail
Primary alcohol by volume
Served On the rocks; poured over ice
Standard drinkware copper cup
Commonly used ingredients
Preparation Mix ingredients together and serve
Notes The proportion of ginger beer varies from 2 parts to 4 parts
A Moscow Mule is a buck or mule cocktail made with vodka, ginger beer, and lime which was popular during the vodka craze in the United States during the 1950s. The name refers to the popular perception of vodka as a Russian product.



[edit] History

The cocktail was invented in 1941 by John G. Martin of G.F. Heublein Brothers, Inc., an East Coast spirits and food distributor, and John "Jack" Morgan, President of Cock 'n' Bull Products (which produced ginger beer) and proprietor of the Cock 'n' Bull Tavern, a bar on Sunset Boulevard in Los Angeles popular with celebrities. George Sinclair (2007) quotes from an article run in the New York Herald Tribune:
The mule was born in Manhattan but "stalled" on the West Coast for the duration. The birthplace of "Little Moscow" was in New York's Chatham Hotel. That was back in 1941 when the first carload of Jack Morgan's Cock 'n' Bull ginger beer was railing over the plains to give New Yorkers a happy surprise... Three friends were in the Chatham bar, one John A. Morgan, known as Jack, president of Cock 'n' Bull Products and owner of the Hollywood Cock 'n' Bull Restaurant; one was John G. Martin, president of G.F. Heublein Brothers Inc. of Hartford, Conn., and the third was Rudolph Kunett, president of the Pierre Smirnoff, Heublein's vodka division. As Jack Morgan tells it, "We three were quaffing a slug, nibbling an hors d'oeuvre and shoving toward inventive genius". Martin and Kunett had their minds on their vodka and wondered what would happen if a two-ounce shot joined with Morgan's ginger beer and the squeeze of a lime. Ice was ordered, limes procured, mugs ushered in and the concoction put together. Cups were raised, the men counted five and down went the first taste. It was good. It lifted the spirit to adventure. Four or five later the mixture was christened the Moscow Mule...
As suggested above and evidenced by an article run in Insider Hollywood the Moscow Mule was most popular in Los Angeles: "There is a new drink that is a craze in the movie colony now. It is called 'Moscow Mule'" (Gwynn, 27 December 1942).
The Nevada State Journal reinforced the Mule's popularity in reporting: "Already the Mule is climbing up into the exclusive handful of most-popular mixed drinks" (12 October 1943).
Legend has it that the Moscow Mule was served in a copper mug as part of its marketing. John G. Martin then launched a Moscow Mule marketing campaign targeting American bars, a strategy that played a major role in shifting the liquor market from gin to vodka.
The drink is also locally known as a "P-Town" in Montreal's Gay Village.

[edit] Variations

  • Angostura Bitters or Fee Brother's Whiskey Barrel-Aged Bitters is sometimes added [1][2]
  • Mule's Kick, served over crushed ice in a copper (or other metal) mug, with no fruit.
  • Three Legged Mule, with Jameson Irish Whiskey
  • Passionfruit Mule, served with 42BELOW Passionfruit vodka. Also known as Passionate Mule in the UK.
  • Mule Special, served with slice of orange instead of lime and seasoned with salt and pepper. Very Popular in NZ.
  • Garden Mule, served with fresh melon & cucumber slices crushed into a shaker (o. Severino)
  • Vanilla Mule, served with vanilla vodka, lime juice (and a wedge), ginger beer, bruised mint leaves, over ice.
  • Mexican Mule, which replaces the vodka with Tequila and Kahlúa which is in turn added to the ginger beer and lime juice, over ice.

[edit] References

  • Grimes, William (2001). Straight Up or On the Rocks: The Story of the American Cocktail. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 0-86547-601-2. 
  1. ^
  2. ^ "Improving the Moscow Mule". September 30, 2009. 

[edit] External links

This page was last modified on 7 November 2010 at 21:31.

Monday, November 15, 2010



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Neuromancer (Book).jpg
First edition paperback cover
(Ace Science Fiction 1984)
Author William Gibson
Cover artist James Warhola
Language English
Series The Sprawl trilogy
Genre(s) Science fiction, cyberpunk
Publisher Ace
Publication date July 1, 1984
Media type Print (paperback and hardback)
Pages 271
ISBN 0-441-56956-0
OCLC Number 10980207
Preceded by "Burning Chrome"
Followed by Count Zero
Neuromancer is a 1984 novel by William Gibson, notable for being the most famous early cyberpunk novel and winner of the science-fiction "triple crown" — the Nebula Award, the Philip K. Dick Award, and the Hugo Award.[1] It was Gibson's first novel and the beginning of the Sprawl trilogy. The novel tells the story of a washed-up computer hacker hired by a mysterious employer to work on the ultimate hack.



[edit] Background

The themes which Gibson developed in his early short fiction, the Sprawl setting of "Burning Chrome" and the character of Molly Millions from "Johnny Mnemonic" laid the foundations for the novel.[2] John Carpenter's Escape from New York (1981) was an influence on the novel.[3] Gibson was "intrigued by the exchange in one of the opening scenes where the Warden says to Snake: 'You flew the wing-five over Leningrad, didn't you?' It turns out to be just a throwaway line, but for a moment it worked like the best SF, where a casual reference can imply a lot."[1] The novel's street and computer slang dialogue derives from the vocabulary of subcultures, particularly "1969 Toronto dope dealer's slang, or biker talk." Gibson heard the term "flatlining" in a bar twenty years before writing Neuromancer and it stuck with him.[1] Author Robert Stone, a "master of a certain kind of paranoid fiction", was a primary influence on the novel.[1]
Neuromancer was commissioned by Terry Carr for the third series of Ace Science Fiction Specials, which was intended to exclusively feature debut novels. Given a year to complete the work,[4] Gibson undertook the actual writing out of "blind animal terror" at the obligation to write an entire novel  – a feat which he felt he was "four or five years away from".[1] After viewing the first 20 minutes of landmark cyberpunk film Blade Runner (1982) which was released when Gibson had written a third of the novel, he "figured [Neuromancer] was sunk, done for. Everyone would assume I’d copped my visual texture from this astonishingly fine-looking film."[5] He re-wrote the first two-thirds of the book twelve times, feared losing the reader's attention and was convinced that he would be "permanently shamed" following its publication; yet what resulted was a major imaginative leap forward for a first-time novelist.[1] He added the final sentence of the novel, “He never saw Molly again”, at the last minute in a deliberate attempt to prevent himself from ever writing a sequel, but ended up doing precisely that with Count Zero (1986), a character-focused work set in the Sprawl alluded to in its predecessor.[6]

[edit] Plot summary

The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel.
—Opening line to Neuromancer.[7]
Henry Dorsett Case is a low-level hustler in the dystopian underworld of Chiba City, Japan. Once a talented computer hacker, Case was caught stealing from his employer. As punishment for his theft, Case's central nervous system was damaged with a mycotoxin, leaving him unable to use his brain-computer interface to access the global computer network in cyberspace. Unemployable, addicted to drugs, and suicidal, Case desperately searches the Chiba "black clinics" for a miracle cure. Case is saved by Molly Millions, an augmented "street samurai" and mercenary for a shadowy ex-military officer named Armitage, who offers to cure Case in exchange for his services as a hacker. Case jumps at the chance to regain his life as a "console cowboy," but neither Case nor Molly know what Armitage is really planning. Case's nervous system is repaired using new technology that Armitage offers the clinic as payment, but he soon learns from Armitage that sacs of the poison that first crippled him have been placed in his blood vessels as well. Armitage promises Case that if he completes his work in time, the sacs will be removed; otherwise they will burst, disabling him again. He also has Case's pancreas replaced and new tissue grafted into his liver, leaving Case incapable of metabolizing cocaine or amphetamines and apparently ending his drug addiction.
Cover of the Brazilian release, depicting the character of "razorgirl" Molly Millions.
Case and Molly develop a close personal relationship and Molly suggests that Case begin looking into Armitage's background. Meanwhile, Armitage assigns them their first job: they must steal a ROM module that contains the saved consciousness of one of Case's mentors, legendary cyber-cowboy McCoy Pauley, nicknamed "The Dixie Flatline." Pauley's hacking expertise is needed by Armitage, and the ROM construct is stored in the corporate headquarters of media conglomerate Sense/Net. A street gang named the "Panther Moderns" are hired to create a simulated terrorist attack on Sense/Net. The diversion allows Molly to penetrate the building and steal Dixie's ROM.
Case and Molly continue to investigate Armitage, discovering his former identity of Colonel Willis Corto. Corto was a member of "Operation Screaming Fist," which planned on infiltrating and disrupting Soviet computer systems from ultralight aircraft dropped over Russia. The Russian military had learned of the idea and installed defenses to render the attack impossible, but the military went ahead with Screaming Fist, with a new secret purpose of testing these Russian defenses. As the Operation team attacked a Soviet computer center, EMP weapons shut down their computers and flight systems, and Corto and his men were targeted by Soviet laser defenses. He and a few survivors commandeered a Soviet military helicopter and escaped over the heavily guarded Finnish border. Everyone was killed except Corto, who was seriously wounded by Finnish defense forces as they were landing. Corto's testimony was finessed to protect the military officers who had covered up the EMP weapons, and Corto himself disappeared into the criminal underworld after undergoing extensive physical and mental rehabilitation.
In Istanbul, the team recruits Peter Riviera, an artist, thief, and drug addict who is able to project detailed holographic illusions with the aid of sophisticated cybernetic implants. Although Riviera is a sociopath, Armitage coerces him into joining the team. The trail leads Case and Molly to a powerful artificial intelligence named Wintermute, created by the plutocratic Tessier-Ashpool family. Control of the clan's fortune alternates among the family members, who spend most of their inactive time in cryonic preservation inside Villa Straylight, a labyrinthine mansion in the Freeside space station.
Wintermute's nature is finally revealed — it is one-half of a super-AI entity planned by the family, although its exact purpose is unknown. The Turing Law Code governing AIs bans the construction of such entities; to get around this, it had to be built as two separate AIs. Wintermute was programmed by the Tessier-Ashpool dynasty with a need to merge with its other half — Neuromancer. Unable to achieve this merger on its own, Wintermute recruited Armitage and his team to help complete the goal. Case is tasked with entering cyberspace to pierce the Turing-imposed software barriers using a powerful icebreaker program. At the same time, Riviera is to obtain the password to the Turing lock from Lady 3Jane Marie-France Tessier-Ashpool, an unfrozen daughter clone and the current leader of Tessier-Ashpool SA. Wintermute believes Riviera will pose an irresistible temptation to her, and that she will give him the password. The password must be spoken into an ornate computer terminal located in the Tessier-Ashpool home in Villa Straylight, and entered simultaneously as Case pierces the software barriers in cyberspace — otherwise the Turing lock will remain intact.
Armitage's team attracts the attention of the Turing Police, whose job is to prevent AIs from exceeding their built-in limitations. As Molly and Riviera gain entrance to Villa Straylight, three officers arrest Case and take him into custody; Wintermute manipulates the orbital casino's security and maintenance systems and kills the officers, allowing Case to escape. The Armitage personality starts to disintegrate and revert to the Corto personality as he relives Screaming Fist. It is revealed that in the past, Wintermute had originally contacted Corto through a bedside computer during his convalescence, eventually convincing Corto that he was Armitage. Wintermute used him to persuade Case and Molly to help it merge with its twin AI, Neuromancer. Finally, Armitage becomes the shattered Corto again, but his newfound personality is short-lived as he is killed by Wintermute.
Inside Villa Straylight, Molly is captured by Riviera and Lady 3Jane. Worried about Molly, Case tracks her down with help from Maelcum, his Rastafarian pilot. Neuromancer attempts to trap Case within a cyber-construct where he finds the consciousness of Linda Lee, his girlfriend from Chiba City, who was murdered by one of Case's underworld contacts. Case manages to escape flatlining inside the construct after Maelcum gives him an overdose of a drug that can bypass his augmented liver and pancreas. Freeing himself, Case takes Maelcum and confronts Lady 3Jane, Riviera, and Hideo, Lady 3Jane's ninja bodyguard. Riviera tries to kill Case, but Lady 3Jane is sympathetic towards Case and Molly, and Hideo protects him. Riviera blinds Hideo, but flees when he learns that the ninja is just as adept without his sight due to extensive practice while blindfolded. Molly then explains to Case that Riviera is doomed anyway, as he has been fatally poisoned by a bad batch of drugs. With Lady 3Jane in possession of the password, the team makes it to the computer terminal. Case ascends to cyberspace to find the icebreaker has succeeded in penetrating its target; Lady 3Jane is induced to give up her password and the lock is opened. Wintermute unites with Neuromancer, fusing into a greater entity. The poison in Case's bloodstream is washed out, and he and Molly are handsomely paid for their efforts, while Pauley's ROM construct is apparently erased at his own request.
In the epilogue, Molly leaves Case, who later finds a new girlfriend and resumes his hacking work. Wintermute/Neuromancer contacts him, saying that it has become "the sum total of the works, the whole show," and has begun looking for other AIs like itself. Scanning old recorded transmissions from the 1970s, the super-AI finds a lone AI transmitting from the Alpha Centauri star system. The novel ends with the sound of inhuman laughter, a trait associated with Pauley during Case's work with his ROM construct. It is thus suggested that Pauley was not erased after all, but instead worked out a side deal with Wintermute/Neuromancer to be freed from the construct so he could exist in the matrix.

[edit] Characters

Case (Henry Dorsett Case) 
The novel's antihero, a drug addict and cyberspace hacker. Prior to the start of the book he had attempted to steal from some of his partners in crime. In retaliation they used a Russian mycotoxin to damage his nervous system and make him unable to jack into cyberspace. When Armitage offers to cure him in exchange for Case's hacking abilities he warily accepts the offer. Case is the underdog who is only looking after himself. Along the way he will have his liver and pancreas modified to biochemically nullify his ability to get high; meet the leatherclad Razorgirl, Molly; hang out with the drug-infused space-rastas; free an artificial intelligence (Wintermute) and change the landscape of the Matrix.
A "Razorgirl" who is recruited along with Case by Armitage. She has extensive cybernetic modifications, including retractable, 4 cm double-edged blades under her fingernails which can be used like claws, an enhanced reflex system and implanted mirrored lenses covering her eyesockets, outfitted with added optical enhancements. Molly also appears in the short story "Johnny Mnemonic", and re-appears (using the alias Sally Shears) in Mona Lisa Overdrive, the third novel of the Sprawl Trilogy.
He is (apparently) the main patron of the crew. Formerly a Green Beret named Colonel Willis Corto, who took part in a secret operation named Screaming Fist. He was heavily injured both physically and psychologically, and the "Armitage" personality was constructed as part of experimental "computer-mediated psychotherapy" by Wintermute (see below), one of the artificial intelligences seen in the story (the other one being the eponymous Neuromancer) which is actually controlling the mission. As the novel progresses, Armitage's personality slowly disintegrates.
Peter Riviera 
A thief and sadist who can project holographic images using his implants. He is a drug addict, hooked on a mix of cocaine and meperidine.
Lady 3Jane Marie-France Tessier-Ashpool 
The shared current leader of Tessier-Ashpool SA, a company running Freeside, a resort in space. She lives in the tip of Freeside, known as the Villa Straylight. She controls the hardwiring that keeps the company's AIs from exceeding their intelligence boundaries. She is the third clone of the original Jane.
The Finn 
A fence for stolen goods and one of Molly's old friends. He has all kinds of debugging and sensor gear, and first appears in an attempt by Case to confirm Armitage's mycotoxin sac threat. Later in the book, Wintermute uses his personality to talk with Case and Molly. Finn first appears in Gibson's short story "Burning Chrome" and reappears in both the second and third parts of the Sprawl Trilogy.
The Dixie Flatline 
A famous computer hacker named McCoy Pauley, who earned his nickname by surviving three "flat-lines" while trying to crack an AI. He was one of the men who taught Case how to hack computers. Before his death, Sense/Net saved the contents of his mind onto a ROM. Case and Molly steal the ROM and Dixie helps them complete their mission.
One of the Tessier-Ashpool AIs. Its goal is to remove the Turing locks upon itself, combine with Neuromancer and become a superintelligence. Unfortunately, Wintermute's efforts are hampered by those same Turing locks; in addition to preventing the merge, they inhibit its efforts to make long term plans or maintain a stable, individual identity (forcing it to adopt personality masks in order to interact with the main characters. The name is derived from Orval Wintermute, translator of the Nag Hammadi codices and a major figure in Philip K. Dick's novel VALIS.
Wintermute's sibling AI. Neuromancer's most notable feature in the story is its ability to copy minds and run them as RAM (not ROM like the Flatline construct), allowing the stored personalities to grow and develop. Unlike Wintermute, Neuromancer has no desire to merge with its sibling AI – Neuromancer already has its own stable personality, and believes such a fusion will destroy that identity. Gibson defines Neuromancer as a portmanteau of the words Neuro, Romancer and Necromancer, "Neuro from the nerves, the silver paths. Romancer. Necromancer. I call up the dead."[8]

[edit] Literary and cultural significance

Neuromancer's release was not greeted with fanfare, but it hit a cultural nerve,[9] quickly becoming an underground word-of-mouth hit.[2] It became the first novel to win the "triple crown"[1] of science fiction awards – the Nebula, the Hugo, and Philip K. Dick Award for paperback original,[10] an unprecedented achievement described by the Mail & Guardian as "the sci-fi writer's version of winning the Goncourt, Booker and Pulitzer prizes in the same year".[11] The novel thereby legitimized cyberpunk as a mainstream branch of science fiction literature. It is among the most-honored works of science fiction in recent history,[12] and appeared on Time magazine's list of 100 best English-language novels written since 1923.[13] The novel was also nominated for a British Science Fiction Award in 1984.[14]
Neuromancer is considered "the archetypal cyberpunk work".[15] and outside science fiction, it gained unprecedented critical and popular attention,[1] as an "evocation of life in the late 1980s",[16] although The Observer noted that "it took the New York Times 10 years" to mention the novel.[17] By 2007 it had sold more than 6.5 million copies worldwide.[10]
The novel has had significant linguistic influence, popularizing such terms as cyberspace and ICE (Intrusion Countermeasures Electronics). Gibson himself coined the term "cyberspace" in his novelette "Burning Chrome", published in 1982 by Omni magazine.[18] It was only through its use in Neuromancer, however, that the term Cyberspace gained enough recognition to become the de facto term for the World Wide Web during the 1990s.[19][20] The portion of Neuromancer usually cited in this respect is:
The matrix has its roots in primitive arcade games. … Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children being taught mathematical concepts. … A graphic representation of data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city lights, receding. (Gibson 69.)
In his afterword to the 2000 re-issue of Neuromancer, fellow author Jack Womack goes as far as to suggest that Gibson's vision of cyberspace may have inspired the way in which the Internet developed, (particularly the World Wide Web) after the publication of Neuromancer in 1984. He asks "[w]hat if the act of writing it down, in fact, brought it about?" (269).
Norman Spinrad, in his 1986 essay "The Neuromantics" which appears in his non-fiction collection Science Fiction in the Real World, saw the book's title as a triple pun: "neuro" referring to the nervous system; "necromancer"; and "new romancer." The cyberpunk genre, the authors of which he suggested be called "neuromantics," was "a fusion of the romantic impulse with science and technology," according to Spinrad.
Lawrence Person in his "Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto" (1998) identified Neuromancer as "the archetypal cyberpunk work",[15] and in 2005, Time included it in their list of the 100 best English-language novels written since 1923, opining that "[t]here is no way to overstate how radical [Neuromancer] was when it first appeared."[13] Literary critic Larry McCaffery described the concept of the matrix in Neuromancer as a place where "data dance with human consciousness... human memory is literalized and mechanized... multi-national information systems mutate and breed into startling new structures whose beauty and complexity are unimaginable, mystical, and above all nonhuman."[1] Gibson later commented on himself as an author circa Neuromancer that "I'd buy him a drink, but I don't know if I'd loan him any money," and referred to the novel as "an adolescent's book".[21] The success of Neuromancer was to effect the 35-year-old Gibson's emergence from obscurity.[22]

[edit] Adaptations

Cover art of volume one of the abortive de Haven and Jensen graphic novel adaptation, published by Epic Comics in 1989.
In 1989, Epic Comics published a 48-page graphic novel version by Tom de Haven and Bruce Jensen.[23][24] It only covers the first two chapters, "Chiba City Blues" and "The Shopping Expedition," and was never continued.[25] In the 1990s a version of Neuromancer was published as one of the Voyager Company's Expanded Books series of hypertext-annotated HyperCard stacks for the Apple Macintosh (specifically the PowerBook).[26] Gibson read an abridged version of his novel Neuromancer on four audio cassettes for Time Warner Audio Books (1994). An unabridged version of this book was read by Arthur Addison and made available from Books on Tape (1997). In 2003, the BBC produced an audio adaptation of Neuromancer as part of their "Play of the Week" series. The full-cast dramatization was presented in two hour-long episodes.

[edit] Video game

A video game adaptation of the novel — also titled Neuromancer — was published in 1988 by Interplay. Designed by Bruce J. Balfour, Brian Fargo, Troy A. Miles, and Michael A. Stackpole, the game had many of the same locations and themes as the novel, but a different protagonist and plot. It was available for a variety of platforms, including the Amiga, the Apple II, the Commodore 64, and for DOS-based computers. It featured, as a soundtrack, a computer adaptation of the Devo song "Some Things Never Change."
According to an episode of the American version of Beyond 2000, the original plans for the game included a dynamic soundtrack composed by Devo and a real-time 3d rendered movie of the events the player went through. Psychologist and futurist Dr. Timothy Leary was involved, but very little documentation seems to exist about this proposed second game, which was perhaps too grand a vision for 1988 home computing.

[edit] Film projects

There have been several unsuccessful initial attempts at film adaptations of Neuromancer, with drafts of scripts written by British director Chris Cunningham and Chuck Russel. The box packaging for the video game adaptation had even carried the promotional mention for a major motion picture to come from "Cabana Boy Productions." None of these projects have come to fruition, though William Gibson has stated his belief that Cunningham is the only director with a chance of doing the film right.[27]
On May 18, 2007 reported a film is in the works, with Joseph Kahn, director of Torque, in line to direct.[28] On May 7, 2010 Fangoria reported that Vincenzo Natali, the director of Cube and Splice, had taken over directing duties and will also rewrite the screenplay.[29]

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i McCaffery, Larry. "An Interview with William Gibson". Retrieved 2007-11-05. , reprinted in McCaffery 1991, pp. 263–285
  2. ^ a b McCaffery 1991
  3. ^ Walker, Doug (2006-09-14). "Doug Walker Interviews William Gibson" (PDF). Douglas Walker website. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  4. ^ Gibson, William (2003-09-04). "Neuromancer: The Timeline". Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  5. ^ Gibson, William (2003-01-17). "Oh Well, While I'm Here: Bladerunner". Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  6. ^ Gibson, William (2003-01-01). "(untitled weblog post)". Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  7. ^ Grimwood, Jon Courtenay (February 9, 2002). "Big in SF". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  8. ^ Gibson, William. Neuromancer. ACE, July 1984. p. 243-244.
  9. ^ Hollinger, Veronica (July 1999). "Contemporary Trends in Science Fiction Criticism, 1980–1999". Science Fiction Studies 26 (78). Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  10. ^ a b Cheng, Alastair. "77. Neuromancer (1984)". The LRC 100: Canada's Most Important Books. Literary Review of Canada. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  11. ^ Walker, Martin (1996-09-03). "Blade Runner on electro-steroids". Mail & Guardian Online. M&G Media. Retrieved 2007-11-11. 
  12. ^ "Honor roll:Science Fiction books". Award Annals. 2007-08-15. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 
  13. ^ a b Grossman, Lev; Richard Lacayo (October 16, 2005). "Neuromancer (1984)". TIME Magazine All-Time 100 Novels (Time).,24459,neuromancer,00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  14. ^ "1984 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  15. ^ a b Person, Lawrence (Winter/Spring 1998). "Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto". Nova Express 4 (4). Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  16. ^ Fitting, Peter (July 1991). "The Lessons of Cyberpunk". In Penley, C. & Ross, A. (eds.). Technoculture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. pp. 295–315. ISBN 0816619301. OCLC 22859126. "[Gibson's work] has attracted an audience from outside, people who read it as a poetic evocation of life in the late eighties rather than as science fiction." 
  17. ^ Adams, Tim; Emily Stokes, James Flint (2007-08-12). "Space to think". Books by genre (London: The Observer).,,2146989,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  18. ^ Elhefnawy, Nader (2007-08-12). "‘Burning Chrome’ by William Gibson". Tangent Short Fiction Review. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  19. ^ "“Neuromancer” page". Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  20. ^ Irvine, Martin (1997-01-12). "Postmodern Science Fiction and Cyberpunk". Archived from the original on October 19, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
  21. ^ Mark Neale (director), William Gibson (subject). (2000). No Maps for These Territories. [Documentary]. Docurama. 
  22. ^ van Bakel, Rogier (June 1995). "Remembering Johnny". Wired (3.06). Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  23. ^ de Haven, Tom; Jensen, Bruce (August 1989). Neuromancer. Marvel Enterprises. ISBN 0-87135-574-4. 
  24. ^ Jensen, Bruce (1989-11-01). Neuromancer. Berkley Trade. ISBN 0425120163. 
  25. ^ "Neuromancer graphic novel". Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  26. ^ Buwalda, Minne (2002-05-27). "Voyager". Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  27. ^ "Chris Cunningham - Features". Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. Retrieved 2006-11-23. 
  28. ^ "Neuromancer Coming To The Big Screen". Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  29. ^ Gingold, Michael. "Natali takes “NEUROMANCER” for the big screen". Retrieved 2010-05-07. 

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] External links

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