Saturday, February 6, 2010


Ivanhoe is a novel by Sir Walter Scott. It was written in 1819 and set in 12th century England, an example of historical fiction. Ivanhoe is sometimes given credit for helping to increase popular interest in the Middle Ages in 19th century Europe and America (see Romanticism). John Henry Newman claimed that Scott "had first turned men's minds in the direction of the middle ages," while Carlyle and Ruskin made similar claims to Scott's overwhelming influence over the revival, due primarily to the publication of this novel.[1]




Catharsis (Ancient GreekΚάθαρσις) is a Greek word meaning "purification", "purging", "cleansing" or "clarification." It is derived from the infinitive verb of Ancient Greekκαθαίρειν transliterated as kathairein "to purify, purge," and adjective Ancient Greekκαθαρός katharos "pure or clean."



Thursday, February 4, 2010

State of Dis-Union

The focus of President Obama's State of the Union address, as we all know, was jobs, jobs, and jobs.

But if you're one of the nearly 16 million Americans out of work, bad news. The President, who told Congress its number one focus this year should be on job creation, served up little in the way of realistic hope for resolving the nation's chief economic illness, lofty unemployment.

That was the reaction of one razor sharp economist to such proposals as:

  • A30 billion expenditure to banks for small business loans.
  • The elimination of all capital gains taxes on small business investment.
  • Tax incentives for businesses that invest in new plant and equipment.
  • Tax credits for companies to hire more people or raise wages.
  • And putting Americans to work today by building the infrastructure of tomorrow.

"I was very disappointed," says Madeline Schnapp, the economics chief of TrimTabs Research, a West Coast liquidity-tracking service partially owned by Goldman Sachs. "These proposals are not a meaningful and sustainable creator of jobs over the long run. The government is simply embarking on more of the same, expanding federal programs and spending more money than it has."

Arguing that such programs will come with lots and lots of strings, Schnapp contends what they will create are more bureaus of bureaucracy that will stifle small business. "How," she asks, "can federal bureaucracy in Washington, D.C. understand the needs of a small business in Sebastopol, CA, a town of 8,000, which is where I live?" The answer, she says, is it can't.

Of the five proposals, Schnapp found fault with four of them. The one that struck her positively was the elimination of all capital gains taxes on small business investment. "Yeah, I like this one," she says. "The more money small business can keep, the more they can invest in their own businesses, hire, and add productivity."

Meanwhile, we've all heard time and time again from economic experts over the past six months that our unemployment woes would be on the wane in early 2010 and that job firings would be replaced by job hirings amidst a peppier economy.

Sounds good, but the problem is someone forgot to tell the bosses. Their actions prove that talk of improving employment over the short term is for the birds. So far this year, for example, such corporate biggies as Wal-Mart, Sprint Nextel, Caterpillar, Home Depot and Pfizer have announced layoffs or planned layoffs of 56,500 employees. Wal-Mart's Sam's Club stores unit is one of the latest culprits, having recently announced it will scrap 11,200 workers.

This steady stream of renewed layoffs, plus New York City's growing number of beggars (who may well be on the rise in other areas of the nation), seems to offer evidence that Wall Street's employment script is cockeyed, notably its general expectation that this month will only show a loss of 5,000 jobs, versus a loss of 85,000 in December, and then turn in a gain in February, thanks to a slowly improving economy.

Schnapp is convinced the Street is blind-sighted in its employment outlook, which raises questions about the vigor of the economic recovery and the sustainability of the market rally.

"The facts tell us the ugly jobs picture will get a lot uglier before it gets better," she says.

In fact, her expectation is that the work force will actually lose between 50,000 and 150,000 jobs a month over the next six months.

TrimTabs, which claims about 150,000 jobs were lost in December, not the reported 85,000, has long contended that the jobs numbers issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics are flawed because of seasonal adjustments and incomplete survey data. TrimTabs, for example, bases its employment numbers on the use of real-time tax deposits from every employee subject to tax withholdings (approximately 105-110 million), while the BLS only surveys about 440 business locations with roughly 30 million employees).

TrimTabs' jobs outlook is pretty grim, especially for the 15.7 million people (10% of the labor force) who are out of work, or actually 25.4 million (17.3% of the labor force) if you factor in the total number of marginally employed (people who have stopped looking for work and those who can only find part-time jobs). It's also bum tidings if you're one of the 10.5 million individuals collecting unemployment.

Why does Schnapp see the jobs picture getting uglier? "Because we don't see a ho-hum economy creating a lot of jobs," she says, meaning, companies will be reluctant to add employees.

Schnapp's economic outlook this year calls for puny growth in the range of 0% to 1.5%, which she sees characterized by high unemployment, falling wages and salaries, little or no private sector job growth, continuing high foreclosures and delinquencies, flat consumption growth, and rising interest rates.

Noting that the economic engine of the economy is small to medium-sized corporations, she notes that these companies do not have access to the stock and bond markets for capital to fund their needs. Therefore, she observes, their funding must come from organic growth, private investments, or from banks in the form of corporate and industrial loans. Meanwhile, banks' growth is declining at the fastest rate since at least 1980. And since there is little or no organic growth, banks are reluctant to lend to small and medium sized companies that lack extra capital with which to hire.

The bottom line: President Obama, like the Minnesota Vikings' aging quarterback, Brett Favre, may be forced to discover that high hopes, even backed with a seemingly solid strategy, don't always win the ball game.

And as far as John Q. Public is concerned, if you hate your boss, keep it to yourself.

What do you think? E-mail me at

Military official: U.S. hospital ship in Haiti near capacity

Military official: U.S. hospital ship in Haiti near capacity

From Mike Mount, CNN Senior Pentagon Producer
January 28, 2010 7:53 p.m. EST
A patient is treated at the U.S. Navy hospital ship off the coast  of Haiti.
A patient is treated at the U.S. Navy hospital ship off the coast of Haiti.
  • U.S., aid agencies scramble for alternative because ship is nearing capacity
  • Solution involves plans for a 3,000- to 5,000-bed temporary hospital on land
  • USNS Comfort has performed more than 200 surgeries, treated more than 1,000
  • Officials say patients are requiring a longer stay time than expected
  • Haiti
  • Disaster Relief
  • U.S. Navy

Washington (CNN) -- Haitians being treated on a U.S. Navy hospital ship are requiring longer care than expected, forcing the U.S. and other international agencies to scramble for an alternative.

The solution involves plans for a 3,000- to 5,000-bed temporary hospital on land, for continued care, because the ship is reaching its treatment limit, according to Gen. Douglas Fraser, the senior officer in charge of military operations in South America.

The USNS Comfort, the Navy's hospital ship sent to assist in aid efforts, has performed more than 200 surgeries and treated more than 1,000 patients injured in the January 12 earthquake, and has been bolstering its medical staff to keep up with the demand.

"It's used up the clinical capacity before we reach the bed-space capacity," Fraser, commander of the U.S. Southern Command, said at a Pentagon briefing Thursday.

"The effort that we have ongoing right now for the discharge is looking to put together a facility where we have the ability to recover those patients -- and be able to provide them with that recovery space and time that they need," Fraser said.

He said the initial effort would be to make a temporary facility on land the Haitian government has identified, with the facility consisting of tents and cots and whatever other resources can be scrounged together.

Earlier this week the head of the U.S. military's aid relief in Haiti told reporters the military was assisting in getting together components of a large facility with 3,000 to 5,000 beds, to handle the health needs in Haiti.

Lt. Gen. P.K. Keen said the U.S. military would provide medical equipment, but the United Nations is working with other aid organizations to staff it and contractors to build it.

It's not clear where the hospital will be but military officials say it will be just outside of the capital, Port-au-Prince.

Some patients discharged from the ship to continue care at home have no home to recover in, according to witnesses.

Gen. Fraser said the U.S. government's joint task force in Haiti is working in a, "very concerted effort" to put the medical facility together.

The U.S. Navy is also taking care of patients on three other ships -- the USS Carl Vinson, a aircraft carrier; the USS Nassau; and the USS Bataan. The ships are supporting efforts in other parts of the quake-ravaged country and are complete with operating rooms and dozens of hospital beds and medical personnel.

"We'll look to see how we can improve this better. But it's an ongoing process because of the magnitude of the need, the difficulties as we're working through the infrastructure to meet the needs," Fraser said.

Fraser, talking about the cost of the operation, said he had not been placed under any financial limits. "The focus is on meeting the needs of the Haitian people," he said.

In response to criticism that there were still people who have not been able to receive food or aid, Fraser said he does not have an accurate number of how many or exactly where they might be.

"We're still having to move around and find those pockets for food distribution, and so it's really a communication and a continuing effort to get out to every spot that there is in the country," he said.

Alcohol Linked to Cancer Risk in Women

Alcohol Linked to Cancer Risk in Women

Study Shows Even Low-to-Moderate Drinking Raises Risk of Cancer
By Salynn Boyles
WebMD Health News
Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD

Feb. 24, 2009 -- Women who drink as little as one alcoholic beverage a day -- be it beer, wine, or hard liquor -- have an increased cancer risk, a study shows.

Researchers followed more than 1.2 million middle-aged women for an average of seven years. The women were participants in the ongoing Million Women Study in the U.K.

Those who drank alcohol consumed on average one drink a day. These women had an increased cancer risk with increasing alcohol intake, especially for cancers of the breast, liver, rectum, mouth, throat, and esophagus.

Based on their findings, the researchers estimated that alcohol could be to blame for 13% of these cancers in women.

The link between alcohol and breast cancer has been extensively researched and reported on, but the study is among the first to link low-to-moderate alcohol consumption to other cancers in women.

"There were no minimum levels of alcohol consumption that could be considered to be without risk," cancer epidemiologist and study researcher Naomi Allen, DPhil, of the University of Oxford, tells WebMD.

Alcohol and Breast Cancer

Most of the excess cases were breast cancers. Allen and colleagues concluded that as many as 11% of breast cancers can be attributed to alcohol consumption.

Last year, about 250,000 women were diagnosed with invasive and non-invasive breast cancers in the U.S., according to the American Cancer Society. The latest research suggests that 27,000 of these cancers were alcohol related.

The study also shows that:

  • Women who drank only wine had the same risk for developing cancer as those who drank beer, spirits, or a combination of alcoholic beverages.
  • Less than 2% of the women in the study regularly consumed more than three drinks a day, but each additional drink increased risk.
  • Women who smoked and drank alcohol had an increased risk of oral, throat, and esophageal cancer that was greater than the risk associated with smoking alone.

Allen says the findings cannot be extrapolated to men, because they were not included in the study. Most of the research on alcohol and cancer in men has been limited to heavy drinkers, but Allen says it is likely that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption increases cancer risk in men as well as women.

'No Safe Level of Alcohol'

In an editorial accompanying the study, cardiologist Michael S. Lauer, MD, and cardiovascular epidemiologist Paul Sorlie, PhD, of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute noted that the study's enormous size and strong design will strongly influence the debate about alcohol and health.

"From the standpoint of cancer risk, the message of this report could not be clearer," they wrote. "There is no level of alcohol consumption that can be considered safe."

Numerous studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption can lower the risk of heart disease, but Lauer tells WebMD that these studies are not conclusive.

"Even if there are modest beneficial cardiovascular effects, we still don't have a clear picture of the overall risks and benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption," he says. And because heart disease kills mostly elderly women, and because more middle-aged women die from cancer, the findings seem to suggest that the risks of drinking outweigh the benefits in this age group, he says.

"It might be reasonable to suspect that many women in the lay public who are asking physicians about any possible safe effects of alcohol are middle-aged: for this large group, the only reasonable recommendation we can make is that there is no clear evidence that alcohol has medical benefits," Lauer and Sorlie wrote.

Sliding Window Protocol

Sliding Window Protocol

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Sliding Window Protocols are a feature of packet-based data transmission protocols. They are used in the data link layer (OSI model) as well as in TCP (transport layer of the OSI model). They are used to keep a record of the frame sequences sent, and their respective acknowledgements received, by both the users. Their additional feature over a simpler protocol is that they can allow multiple packets to be "in transmission" simultaneously, rather than waiting for each packet to be acknowledged before sending the next.

In transmit flow control, sliding window is a variable-duration window that allows a sender to transmit a specified number of data units before an acknowledgment is received or before a specified event occurs.

An example of a sliding window is one in which, after the sender fails to receive an acknowledgment for the first transmitted frame, the sender "slides" the window, i.e. resets the window, and sends a second frame. This process is repeated for the specified number of times before the sender interrupts transmission. Sliding window is sometimes (loosely) called acknowledgment delay period.

For example, supposing a fixed window size of m frames, a sender may send out m frames ([n \ldots (n+m-1)]) before receiving any acknowledgment. If acknowledgment arrives from the receiver for packet n, then the range (window) of unacknowledged frames slides to [(n+1) \ldots (n+m)], and the sender is able to send out frame (n + m). In some way, "sliding" signifies a FIFO operation, trimming the range at one end, extending it at the other end.

The purpose of the sliding window is to increase throughput. Let's denote the round trip time with RTT. The time necessary to transfer and acknowledge K (a big number of) packets is roughly \operatorname{RTT} \cdot  K/(2m) (in one round trip, 2m frames and 2m ACKs are delivered). However, the size of the window (in bytes) should not grow above "capacity of the path" (the sum of affected network buffer sizes of all hops along the path): windows that are too big do not increase throughput; they only increase latency, the number of frames transmitted out-of-order, and memory usage.

In practice, protocols often adapt the window size to the link's speed and actual saturation or congestion.



Satellite television

Satellite television is television delivered by the means of communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box. In many areas of the world it provides a wide range of channels and services, often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.



Clostridium acetobutylicum

Clostridium acetobutylicum, included in the genus Clostridium, is a commercially valuable bacterium. It is sometimes called the "Weizmann Organism", after Chaim Weizmann, who in 1916 helped discover how C. acetobutylicum culture could be used to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol from starch using the ABE process (Acetone Butanol Ethanol process) for industrial purposes such as gunpowder and Cordite (using acetone) production. The A.B.E. process was an industry standard until the late 1940s, when low oil costs drove more-efficient processes based on hydrocarbon cracking and petroleum distillation techniques. C. acetobutylicum also produces acetic acid (vinegar), butyric acid (a substance that smells like vomit), carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

Anaerobic fermentation using C. acetobutylicum recently regained marked interest for use in vehicle biofuel production as a gasoline and diesel fuel replacement. This is because butanol, as produced by a fibrous bed bioreactor utilizing recent biotechnology co-developed by Environmental Energy Inc. and Ohio State University, produces the alcohol butanol as its primary output. The patented process using C. tyrobutyricum produces little acetone or ethanol, instead producing butyric acid and hydrogen, which is then pumped into another fibrous bed bioreactor where C. acetobutylicum converts the butyric acid into butanol, thus optimizing butanol production. The new process, then, obviates the A.B.E. process, making butanol production competitive with other biofuels with regard to both economics and energy production.

Pure butanol can be utilized in gasoline-powered cars without any modifications, producing similar mileage performance to gasoline but producing fewer NOx pollutants. If produced from a biomass source, there is no net carbon dioxide production.

Unlike yeast, which can digest sugar only into alcohol and carbon dioxide, C. acetobutylicum and many other Clostridia can digest whey, sugar, starch, lignin, cellulose fiber[dubious ], and other biomass directly into butanol, propionic acid, ether, and glycerin. Apart from the need for temperature control, the A.B.E. synthesis process is relatively simple. The products are however, completely miscible in water at the low concentrations produced by fermentation. In addition there is an azeotrope formed by both ethanol and water as well as Butanol and water. The azeotropes as well as the low concentrations of product lead to a relatively complicated separations process

Biobutanol supporters claim significant advantages over other biofuels used to fuel internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and other liquid-fueled processes:

  • Butanol does not attack materials commonly used in vehicular internal combustion engines.
  • Biobutanol can also be used in the industrial paint and solvent industry to replace fossil butanol.

James Liao, a chemical engineer at the University of California, Los Angeles, developed a method to insert genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum which are responsible for production of butanol into the bacterium Escherichia coli. [1] [2]



Diabetes and Alcohol

Alcohol is processed in the body very similarly to the way fat is processed, and alcohol provides almost as many calories. Therefore, drinking alcohol in people with diabetes can cause your blood sugar to rise. If you choose to drink alcohol, only drink it occasionally and when your diabetes and blood sugar level are well-controlled. If you are following a calorie-controlled meal plan, one drink of alcohol should be counted as two fat exchanges.

It is a good idea to check with your doctor if you are overweight or have high blood pressure or high triglyceride levels before drinking alcohol. If you are in doubt about whether drinking alcohol is safe for you, check with your doctor.

Also See:

Diabetes is a serious disease that can cause debilitating nerve pain.

Here's some helpful information:

Effects of Alcohol on Diabetes

Here are some other ways that alcohol can affect diabetes:

  • While moderate amounts of alcohol can cause blood sugar to rise, excess alcohol can actually decrease your blood sugar level -- sometimes causing it to drop into dangerous levels.
  • Beer and sweet wine contain carbohydrates and may raise blood sugar.
  • Alcohol stimulates your appetite, which can cause you to overeat and may affect your blood sugar control.
  • Alcohol can interfere with the positive effects of oral diabetes medicines or insulin.
  • Alcohol may increase triglyceride levels.
  • Alcohol may increase blood pressure.
  • Alcohol can cause flushing, nausea, increased heart rate, and slurred speech.

Diabetes and Alcohol Consumption Dos and Don'ts

People with diabetes should follow these alcohol consumption guidelines:

  • Do not drink more than two drinks of alcohol in a one-day period. (Example: one alcoholic drink = 5-ounce glass of wine, 1 1/2-ounce "shot" of liquor or 12-ounce beer).
  • Drink alcohol only with food.
  • Drink slowly.
  • Avoid "sugary" mixed drinks, sweet wines, or cordials.
  • Mix liquor with water or diet soft drinks.

Monday, February 1, 2010

Is There an Ecological Unconscious?

Is There an Ecological Unconscious?

Artwork by Kate MacDowell; photograph by Dan Kvitka for The New York Times

Published: January 27, 2010

About eight years ago, Glenn Albrecht began receiving frantic calls from residents of the Upper Hunter Valley, a 6,000-square-mile region in southeastern Australia. For generations the Upper Hunter was known as the “Tuscany of the South” — an oasis of alfalfa fields, dairy farms and lush English-style shires on a notoriously hot, parched continent. “The calls were like desperate pleas,” Albrecht, a philosopher and professor of sustainability at Murdoch University in Perth, recalled in June. “They said: ‘Can you help us? We’ve tried everyone else. Is there anything you can do about this?’ ”

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Artwork by Kate MacDowell; photograph by Dan Kvitka for The New York Times

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Residents were distraught over the spread of coal mining in the Upper Hunter. Coal was discovered in eastern Australia more than 200 years ago, but only in the last two decades did the industry begin its exponential rise. Today, more than 100 million tons of black coal are extracted from the valley each year, primarily by open-pit mining, which uses chemical explosives to blast away soil, sediment and rock. The blasts occur several times a day, sending plumes of gray dust over ridges to settle thickly onto roofs, crops and the hides of livestock. Klieg lights provide a constant illumination. Trucks, draglines and idling coal trains emit a constant low-frequency rumble. Rivers and streams have been polluted.

Albrecht, a dark, ebullient man with a crooked aquiline nose, was known locally for his activism. He participated in blockades of ships entering Newcastle (near the Upper Hunter), the largest coal-exporting port in the world, and published opinion articles excoriating the Australian fossil-fuel industries. But Albrecht didn’t see what he could offer besides a sympathetic ear and some tactical advice. Then, in late 2002, he decided to see the transformation of the Upper Hunter firsthand.

“There’s a scholar who talks about ‘heart’s ease,’ ” Albrecht told me as we sat in his car on a cliff above the Newcastle shore, overlooking the Pacific. In the distance, just before the earth curved out of sight, 40 coal tankers were lined up single file. “People have heart’s ease when they’re on their own country. If you force them off that country, if you take them away from their land, they feel the loss of heart’s ease as a kind of vertigo, a disintegration of their whole life.” Australian aborigines, Navajos and any number of indigenous peoples have reported this sense of mournful disorientation after being displaced from their land. What Albrecht realized during his trip to the Upper Valley was that this “place pathology,” as one philosopher has called it, wasn’t limited to natives. Albrecht’s petitioners were anxious, unsettled, despairing, depressed — just as if they had been forcibly removed from the valley. Only they hadn’t; the valley changed around them.

In Albrecht’s view, the residents of the Upper Hunter were suffering not just from the strain of living in difficult conditions but also from something more fundamental: a hitherto unrecognized psychological condition. In a 2004 essay, he coined a term to describe it: “solastalgia,” a combination of the Latin word solacium (comfort) and the Greek root –algia (pain), which he defined as “the pain experienced when there is recognition that the place where one resides and that one loves is under immediate assault . . . a form of homesickness one gets when one is still at ‘home.’ ” A neologism wasn’t destined to stop the mines; they continued to spread. But so did Albrecht’s idea. In the past five years, the word “solastalgia” has appeared in media outlets as disparate as Wired, The Daily News in Sri Lanka and Andrew Sullivan’s popular political blog, The Daily Dish. In September, the British trip-hop duo Zero 7 released an instrumental track titled “Solastalgia,” and in 2008 Jukeen, a Slovenian recording artist, used the word as an album title. “Solastalgia” has been used to describe the experiences of Canadian Inuit communities coping with the effects of rising temperatures; Ghanaian subsistence farmers faced with changes in rainfall patterns; and refugees returning to New Orleans after Katrina.

The broad appeal of solastalgia pleases Albrecht; it has helped earn him hundreds of thousands of dollars in research grants as well as his position at Murdoch. But he is not particularly surprised that it has caught on. “Take a look out there,” he said, gesturing to the line of coal ships. “What you’re looking at is climate change queued up. You can’t get away from it. Not in the Upper Hunter, not in Newcastle, not anywhere. And that’s exactly the point of solastalgia.” Just as the loss of “heart’s ease” is not limited to displaced native populations, solastalgia is not limited to those living beside quarries — or oil spills or power plants or Superfund sites. Solastalgia, in Albrecht’s estimation, is a global condition, felt to a greater or lesser degree by different people in different locations but felt increasingly, given the ongoing degradation of the environment. As our environment continues to change around us, the question Albrecht would like answered is, how deeply are our minds suffering in return?

Albrecht’s philosophical attempt to trace a direct line between the health of the natural world and the health of the mind has a growing partner in a subfield of psychology. Last August, the American Psychological Association released a 230-page report titled “Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change.” News-media coverage of the report concentrated on the habits of human behavior and the habits of thought that contribute to global warming. This emphasis reflected the intellectual dispositions of the task-force members who wrote the document — seven out of eight were scientists who specialize in decision research and environmental-risk management — as well as the document’s stated purpose. “We must look at the reasons people are not acting,” Janet Swim, a Penn State psychologist and the chairwoman of the task force, said, “in order to understand how to get people to act.”

Yet all the attention paid to the behavioral and cognitive barriers to safeguarding the environment — topics of acute interest to policy makers and activists — disguised the fact that a significant portion of the document addressed the supposed emotional costs of ecological decline: anxiety, despair, numbness, “a sense of being overwhelmed or powerless,” grief. It also disguised the unusual background of the eighth member of the task force, Thomas Doherty, a clinical psychologist in Portland, Ore. Doherty runs a private therapeutic practice called Sustainable Self and is the most prominent American advocate of a growing discipline known as “ecopsychology.”

Heavy mettle

Bentley S3 E Concept

25 March 2008 - 13:00

Heavy mettle

Here's another cast-iron lump of retro cartoonish excess in the shape of Arturo Alonso's Bentley S3 E design concept.

We've got a feeling that this is going to be another one of those love-it-or-hate-it cars, but there's no denying that it radiates an intimidating elegance. Like a gazelle with a shotgun.

To create the concept, Alonso took a vintage Bentley S3's coachwork and chassis, and bunged a 4.4-litre BMW V8 up front, so there should be the sound and fury to match the looks.

Fattened-up bodywork, dropped suspension, a big exhaust and 20-inch forged alloys complete the picture - but we can't help wishing he'd gone for a nice old set of wire wheels. Not that you'd actually be able to turn the things.

Alonso plans to build three S3s over the next couple of years, with the price tag expected to be in the region of $150,000. Sadly, that doesn't include the obligatory driving attire of top hat, white gloves, skull jewellery and pimp cane. It's the only way to ride.

TAGS// Bentley, S3


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