Saturday, September 26, 2009

Ancient Knowledge ~ Alien Legacy?

Ancient Knowledge ~ Alien Legacy?

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space ship - ancient knowledge due to alien influence?Whether given to us by demons or aliens, ancient man knew a great deal about the workings of science and the universe around him. The modern “official” history of the rise of our civilization and the scientific discoveries that have brought it about are taught in every school and university in the land and trumpets science over the “superstition” of the ancient world. The classic approach is that before the medieval age and the industrial revolution the people and cultures of our world were basically ignorant of most scientific principles. Modern academic scholars refuse to accept any different viewpoint from the one taught “officially” even when evidence to the contrary is brought right out in the open to refute their worldview.

Time and again our “history” declares the discovery of some new scientific principle that had originally been known in the ancient world but for many reasons had been “forgotten” and often refuted. Let us examine a few of the “truths” taught in our schools and compare them to discoveries that do not get mentioned in our regular classrooms.

We all know that the 17th century Italian physicist, astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilie supposedly was a leading figure in the scientific revolution. He is credited with having first viewed the four largest moons of the planet Jupiter and that they bear the title of the “Galilean” moons. Our schools teach that he was the first to prove that the moon was illuminated by reflected sunlight and that the Milky Way was in fact a cloud of many stars. However, it is not often whispered in our classrooms that four thousand years ago the astronomer priests of Babylon knew of not only the moons of Jupiter but the satellites of Saturn as well. They accurately described the phases of the planet Venus and why it went through the same sort of phases as our own moon.

Even the historian Plutarch writing in the first century A.D. passed along the knowledge from tablets many hundreds of years old even in his time describing the true cause of moonlight. Five hundred years before the common era, the works of Democritus described the pinwheel shape of the mass of stars that comprise out galaxy that we see as a bright band in the sky.

Even in the books of the prophet Enoch there were detailed descriptions of the lunar orbit around our Earth and the orbits of the planets around the Sun. However, his scientific knowledge was expunged from the “Official” Bible that was created by the Catholic Church of Rome in favor of an Earth centric viewpoint that was still the “official” knowledge during Galileo’s time and lead to his arrest and forced renunciation of the “truth” he had rediscovered.

The discovery of penicillin as a medicine is officially credited to Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928 although its effects had been previously published in 1875 by the Royal Society of London. While this extremely effective antibacterial medicine has saved countless lives in the past hundred years, one must wonder why such a useful item had been lost over the ages. Four thousand year old medical texts from ancient Egypt describe penicillin and its use in fighting off bacteriological infections.

As the evidence mounts, Christopher Columbus has slowly lost his claim to the discovery of North America in 1492. Too many facts have emerged that place Viking Norsemen on the North American continent hundreds of years previous to his visits. However, two thousand years ago, the Hindu holy books of the Vishnu Purana described in detail a vast land west of Greenland and Iceland that was shaped somewhat like a bow and was divided into two parts. Fifteen hundred years before Columbus, both North and South America were known to the people of India even though they had no ocean going vessels themselves in which to have made such discoveries.

In our modern world, atomic warfare and the resultant radiation sickness that comes of it is a discovery of the mid twentieth century. However, the ancient texts of the Sumerian culture describe both the mushroom cloud of destruction and the subsequent “death wind” that spread desolation for many hundreds of miles downwind after one of their “gods” Nergal, had unleashed a device from his orbiting “war bird”. Archaeologists in the Middle East have no quick explanation for the layer of ash four thousand years old that exhibits all the telltale signs of being atomic fallout. Nor can they explain why the ancient Sumerian texts describe in detail an ailment that was not seen again on this planet until 1945.

The lists of these ancient knowledges that were given the “official” stamp of discovery to persons of the modern era go on and on. Einstein’s Theory of Relativity was first described by Heraclitus and Zeno of Elea in the fifth century B.C. and Volta’s electric battery designed in early nineteenth century was mysteriously similar to the metal and lemon juice filled clay jugs the ancient Babylonians used to electroplate gold four thousand years earlier.

There have been many discoveries of ancient marvels and objects that show the “official” story to be incomplete and occasionally even fabricated to hold up their views. Hundreds of out of place objects and artifacts that have been sent to the Smithsonian Institute for analysis and safekeeping have mysteriously vanished from those “hallowed” halls of science.

There are the rumors, substantiated at least by the disclosures of crewmen on board the ships that participated, of a vast haul of these ancient artifacts that were secretly removed.

These awkward artifacts were then allegedly taken to the middle of the ocean and dropped overboard to prevent such “proofs” from destroying the “official” story of our culture.

The ancient Sumerians explained that their “gods” the alien Annunaki that came down to the Earth from another planet set up human civilization and taught them the arts and sciences to further humanities existence. This also mirrors the ancient Hebraic tales that the arts and sciences were given to man by “fallen angels”.

Whether given to us by demon or alien, ancient man knew a great deal about the workings of science and the universe around him. While much was forgotten or possibly even hidden by subsequent ages of power hungry men for their own use, it is evident that we are not taught the whole story of our origins. Could this be because we ourselves originated somewhere outside this planet we call home? What would be the repercussions if we were to be given definitive proof that we are truly the children of an ancient alien crossing?


Sumerian Gods and Goddesses

Sumerian Gods and Goddesses

Information about Sumerian Gods and Goddesses is found on the Sumerian King List as well as Sumerian claytablets and cylinder seals. The Sumerian King List records all the rulers of Earth back over 400,000 years. This huge stretch of time coupled with reigns into the thousands of years has caused most historians to reject its accuracy. However all the early rulers were allegedly gods - demi-gods or immortals.

These Gods were called the Nephilim Nefilim, Elohim, the Anunnaki - "Those who from Heaven to Earth came." In Sumerian Mythology they were a pantheon of good and evil gods and goddesses who came to Earth to create the human race. According to the some resources, these gods came from Nibiru - 'Planet of the Crossing.' The Assyrians and Babylonians called it 'Marduk', after their chief god. Sumerians said one year on panet Nibiru, a sar, was equivalent in time to 3,600 Earth years. Anunnaki lifespans were 120 sars which is 120 x 3,600 or 432,000 years. According to the King List - 120 sars had passed from the time the Anunnaki arrived on Earth to the time of the Flood.

The Sumerian Gods Create a Biogenetic Experiment Called Humans
The Anunnaki King's List are sometimes depicted as humanoid. At other times they are bird-headed with wings. Often they are Reptilian in appearance especially when depicted as warriors. Sometimes they are shown as a combination of several types of entities. All is myth, math, and metaphor, so look for the clues in every set ofgods you read about, as they all follow the same patterns that repeat in cycles or loops called Time. The patterns of their battles reflect reality as duality and are found within every pantheon of gods - the same characters playing different roles.

A Sumerian tablet shows Enmeduranki, a prince in Sippar, who was well loved by Anu, Enlil and Ea. Shamash, a riest in the Bright Temple, appointed him then took him to the assembly of the gods. They showed him how to observe oil on water and many other secrets of Anu, Enlil and Ea. Then they gave him the Divine Tablet, the kibdu secret of Heaven and Earth. They taught him how to make calculations with numbers."

The Sumerians never called the Anunnaki, 'gods.' They were called din.gir, a two-syllable word. 'Din' meant 'righteous, pure, bright;' 'gir' was a term used to describe a sharp-edged object. As an epithet for the Anunnaki 'dingir' meant 'righteous ones of the bright pointed objects.'

Sumerian texts break up history into two epochs divided by the Great Deluge - the Biblical Flood. After the waters receded the great Anunnaki who decree the fate decided that the gods were too lofty for mankind. The term used - 'elu' in Akkadian - means exactly that: 'Lofty Ones;' from it comes the Babylonian, Assyrian, Hebrew, and Ugaritic El - the term to which the Greeks gave the connotation 'god'.

From Genesis:

After the sons of God took human wives there were giants in the Earth in those days; and also after
that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the
same became the mighty men which were of old, men of renown. The Nefilim were upon the Earth,
in those days and thereafter too, when the sons of the gods cohabitated with the daughters of the
Adam, and they bore children unto them. They were the mighty ones of Eternity - the people of the
shem.' Nefilim stems from the Semitic root NFL, 'to be cast down.'

The Sumerians believed in their gods and saw the intentions of their gods as good and powerful beings who controlled their world. The Sumerians explanation for their hardships and misfortunes were the result of human deeds that displeased the gods - in a word, sin. They believed that when someone displeased the gods, these gods let demons punish the offender with sickness, disease or environmental disasters.

The Sumerians experienced infrequent rains that sometimes created disastrous floods, and they believed that these floods were punishments created by a demon god that lived in the depths of the Gulf of Persia. And to explain the misfortunes and suffering of infants, the Sumerians believed that sin was inborn, that never was a child born without sin. Therefore, wrote a Sumerian, when one suffered it was best not to curse the gods but to glorify them, to appeal to them, and to wait patiently for their deliverance.

In giving their gods human characteristics, the Sumerians projected onto their gods the conflicts they found among themselves. Sumerian priests wrote of a dispute between the god of cattle, Lahar, and his sister Ashnan, the goddess of grain. Like some other gods, these gods were vain and wished to be praised. Each of the two sibling gods extolled his and her own achievements and belittled the achievements of the other.

The Sumerians 'saw' another dispute between the minor gods Emesh (summer) and his brother Enten (winter).

Each of these brothers had specific duties in creation - like Cain the farmer and Able the herdsmen. The god Enlil put Emesh in charge of producing trees, building houses, temples, cities and other tasks. Enlil put Enten in harge of causing ewes to give birth to lambs, goats to give birth to kids, birds to build nests, fish to lay their eggs and trees to bear fruit. And the brothers quarreled violently as Emesh challenged Enten's claim to be the farmer god.

A dispute existed also between the god Enki and a mother goddess, Ninhursag -- perhaps originally the earth goddess Ki. Ninhursag made eight plants sprout in a divine garden, plants created from three generations of goddesses fathered by Enki.

These goddesses were described as having been born "without pain or travail." Then trouble came as Enki ate the plants that Ninhursag had grown. Ninhursag responded with rage, and she pronounced a curse of death on Enki, and Enki's health began to fail. Eight parts of Enki's body - one for each of the eight plants that he ate - became diseased, one of which was his rib.

The goddess Ninhursag then disappeared so as not let sympathy for Enki change her mind about her sentence of death upon him. But she finally relented and returned to heal Enki. She created eight healing deities - eight more goddesses - one for each of Enki's ailing body parts. The goddess who healed Enki's rib was Nin-ti, a name that in Sumerian meant "lady of the rib," which describes a character who was to appear in a different role in Hebrew writings centuries later, a character to be called Eve.

Instead of Traffic, Fresh Tomatoes


Instead of Traffic, Fresh Tomatoes

First Lady Helps Celebrate Opening of Vermont Avenue Farmers Market

First lady Michelle Obama was on hand to support the opening of a farmers market that closed Vermont Avenue between H and Eye Streets NW to traffic Thursday afternoon.

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Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, September 18, 2009

Michelle Obama continued her crusade for fresh food and local farmers under drizzly skies Thursday when she spoke before a cheering crowd at the opening of the District's newest farmers market, just blocks from the White House.

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"I have to say, I have never seen so many people so excited about fruits and vegetables!" she said as several hundred foodies and first-lady fans raised their cellphones and cameras to capture the moment. "This is good!"

The market is the fifth in the city run by Freshfarm Markets, which had sought to put it closer to the White House on Pennsylvania Avenue but was stymied by security concerns. Last week, with the support of neighborhood groups, the nonprofit group was granted permission to close off a block of Vermont Avenue between H and I streets NW from 1 to 8 p.m. Thursdays until Oct. 29.

"It's an exciting day," said Bernadine Prince, co-director of Freshfarm Markets. Obama is "making healthy eating a priority. What we need to do now is make it a national habit."

Tents belonging to 19 farmers from the Chesapeake Bay watershed lined the closed-off block. Obama urged the crowd to take advantage of the offerings: wooden crates overflowing with yellow corn and gala apples, tables filled with tomatoes, peppers and eggplant.

"I've learned that when my family eats fresh food, healthy food, that it really affects how we feel, how we get through the day," she said, "and that's whether we're trying to get through math homework or whether there's a Cabinet meeting or whether we're just walking the dog."

Then she heeded her own advice and -- wearing a lei of marigolds offered by a 5-year-old girl -- descended from the podium to shake hands and buy a basketful of Tuscan kale, eggs, cherry tomatoes, mixed hot peppers, pears, fingerling potatoes, cheese and chocolate milk.

Following suit, members of the crowd fanned out to farmers' stands, where they gawked at giant sweet potatoes, tasted tomatoes and asked how to use celery root in a soup. A Secret Service worker who had just finished his shift sampled every kind of goat cheese at one stand, then chose a brie to take home to his wife.

Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the Export-Import Bank, whose buildings flank the block, shrugged off concerns about closing Vermont Avenue during rush hour.

"There's not a lot of options for fresh food in the District," said Roz Howard, 37, a management analyst at Veterans Affairs. "You shut down for sporting events all the time. Why not for something that can really help people?"

Howard Schwartz, 56, an administrative law judge at Veterans Affairs, stood in the middle of Vermont Avenue taking the second-to-last bite of a nectarine. He'd watched the first lady extol the virtues of fresh food from the fifth floor of the Lafayette Building and decided to come down and partake.

"I used to pick and pack peaches near Niagara Falls," he said. "What I've been eating around here is plastic, but this here is wonderful stuff."

He couldn't park his motorcycle on Vermont Avenue on Thursday and had to the take the Metro but said it was a small price to pay: "I'll give up my motorcycle for a really good nectarine."

Friday, September 25, 2009

Steganography meets VoIP in hacker world

Steganography meets VoIP in hacker world

Tools to make hiding messages more feasible under development
By Tim Greene , Network World , 09/11/2009

Researchers and hackers are developing tools to execute a new data-leak threat: sneaking proprietary information out of networks by hiding it within VoIP traffic.

(A brief history of steganography)

Techniques that fall under the category of VoIP steganography have been discussed in academic circles for a few years, but now more chatter is coming from the hacker community about creating easy-to-use tools, says Chet Hosmer, co-founder and Chief Scientist at WetStone Technologies, which researches cybercrime technology and trains security professionals investigating cybercrimes.

“There are no mass-market programs yet, but it’s on our radar, and we are concerned about it given the ubiquitous nature of VoIP,” he says. VoIP steganography conceals secret messages within VoIP streams without severely degrading the quality of calls.

Steganography in general is hiding messages so no one even suspects they are there, and when done digitally, it calls for hiding messages within apparently legitimate traffic. For example, secret data can be transferred within .jpg files by using the least significant bits to carry it. Because only the least significant bits are used, the hidden messages have little impact on the appearance of the images the files contain.

There are more than 1,000 steganographic programs available for download online that can place secret data within image, sound and text files, Hosmer says, and then extract it. There are none for VoIP steganography yet, but in the labs, researchers have come up with three basic ways to carry it out.

The first calls for using unused bits within UDP or RTP protocols – both used for VoIP - for carrying the secret message.

The second is hiding data inside each voice payload packet but not so much that it degrades the quality of the sound.

The third method calls for inserting extra and deliberately malformed packets within the VoIP flow. They will be dropped by the receiving phone, but can be picked up by other devices on the network that have access to the entire VoIP stream. A variation calls for dropping in packets that are so out of sequence that the receiving device drops them.

These techniques require compromised devices or conspirators on both ends of calls or a man-in-the-middle to inject extra packets. “It’s much more difficult to do and much more difficult to detect,” than hiding data within other files, Hosmer says.
The medium used to carry secret messages is called the carrier, and just about anything can be a carrier. For example, x86 executables can carry secret messages, according to Christian Collberg, an associate professor of computer science at the University of Arizona and co-author of the book Surreptitious Software.


Page 2 of 3

By manipulating the compiler, it can be made to choose one addition operation over another, and that choice can represent a bit in the secret message, Collberg says. “There are lots of choices a compiler makes, and whenever you have a choice, that could represent a bit of information,” he says.

Even something as broadly used as TCP/IP can be host to steganographic messages. One of the newest methods takes advantage of TCP retransmission – known as retransmission steganograpny (RSTEG) - in which sending machines resend packets for which they fail to receive acknowledgements.

The sending and receiving machines must both be in on the steganography, according to a paper written by a group of Polish researchers headed up by Wojciech Mazurczynk at the Warsaw University of Technology. At some point during the transmission of a file, the receiving machine fails to send an acknowledgement for a packet and it is resent.

The resent packet is actually different from the initial packet and contains a steganographic message as the payload. The receiving machine can distinguish such resent packets and opens up the message, the researchers say.

In his blog Crypto-Gram Newsletter, security expert Bruce Schneier dismisses the threat from RSTEG. “I don't think these sorts of things have any large-scale applications,” he says, “but they are clever.”

Mazurczynk and his colleagues have spent a lot of time figuring out new carriers for secret messages, publishing research on embedding them in VoIP and wireless LAN traffic.

In general, defending against steganography is tough to do because traditional security devices such as firewalls and application firewalls don’t detect this type of illicit transfer; a file containing a secret message looks just like a legitimate file.

The best way to combat suspected use of steganography to leak corporate data is to look for the telltale signs - known steganography programs on company computers, says Hosmer. On systems where it is found, forensic analysis may reveal files that contained messages and an indication of what data might have been leaked.

When the steganography program is known, it can be applied to the carrier to reveal the secret message. That message may be in code and have to be decrypted, he says.


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In many cases, just knowing that steganography is going on and who is responsible is enough for a business. They can confront the person and take steps to prevent further leaks, Collberg says.

But businesses can take more active steps such as destroying the secret messages by altering the carrier file. For instance, if the carrier is an image file, setting all the least significant bits to zero would destroy any messages contained there without significantly changing the appearance of the image, he says.

Free programs such as Stirmark for scrambling files enough to destroy steganographic messages are available online. Keith Bertolino, founder of digital forensics start-up E.R. Forensics, based in West Nyack, N.Y., has developed double stegging – inserting stenographic messages within files with the intent of disrupting other stenographic messages that might also be in the files. He is waiting to find out if he gets a Small Business Innovation and research (SBIR) grant from the government to pursue turning his steganography jamming technology into a commercial product.

According to Hosmer, a look at evidence in closed cases of electronic crime found that in 3% of those cases, criminals had steganographic programs installed on their computers. “The fact that these criminals were even aware [of steganography] was a startling surprise to law enforcement agencies,” he says.

Interest in steganography is growing, according to Wetstone Technology’s monitoring of six popular steganography applications. In 2008, the six combined logged 30,000 downloads per month, up from 8,000 to 10,000 per month about three years ago, Hosmer says. That’s not a dramatic increase given that the use of Internet-connected computes has gone up in the meantime, but it is still noteworthy, he says.

Steganography is not always bad. Technically, steganography is just the same as digital watermarking, but with different intent, Collberg says.The watermark is a secret message embedded, for instance, in an image file so if the image is use online, a Web crawler can find it. Then the creator of the image can check whether the site displaying the image has paid for it or is violating copyright, he says.

Thursday, September 24, 2009

4 Ways the 'No Religion' Boom Will Alter American Politics

September 22, 2009 01:55 PM ET | Dan Gilgoff | Permanent Link | Print

By Dan Gilgoff, God & Country

How will the boom in Americans claiming "no religion"—25 percent of the country will fit into that category in 20 years, according to a Trinity College survey out today—alter national politics?

I see four big ways:

1. Secular voters will become an increasingly important component of the Democratic base.

In the 1990s, so-called religious nones comprised 6 percent of the Democratic Party and 6 percent of the GOP. Today, there are two and a half times as many nones—34 million Americans, or 15 percent of the country—and they account for 16 percent of Democrats, compared with just 8 percent of Republicans. Three in four of them voted for Barack Obama in the last election. Every indication is that these political trends will continue.

Even as the Democratic Party has seriously stepped up its faith outreach, then, the fact that the fastest-growing religious group in the United States is those with no religious affiliation—and that members of that group are leaning dramatically in the Democratic direction—will make the Dems pay closer attention to them.

2. American politics will become more polarized.

As more Americans leave religion, the ones left in the pews are those most committed to their faith. In a nation where church attendance is one of the best predictors of voting behavior—the more often you attend, the more likely you are to vote Republican—this polarization of religious life will spill over into the political arena, setting off more culture-war battles.

3. Republicans will have to choose between becoming a more overtly religious party and reaching out more seriously to the growing secular middle.

Secular voters once constituted an important part of the GOP coalition, but fewer than 10 percent of religious nones under age 30 are Republican. "Republican nones are getting older and continue to show an affinity to the GOP," says Juhen Navarro-Rivera, a Trinity College research fellow who helped compile the new report. "But they're not making new Republican nones."

Navarro-Rivera is still running the numbers, but his hunch is that the new generation of religious nones has been scared away from the Republican Party because of its ties to the Christian right. Does the GOP continue to embrace that movement or move more to the middle? Call it the Sarah Palin option versus the John McCain option. (Though opposition to healthcare reform, it should be noted, is helping bring the two camps together.)

4. If secular voters become more aggressively antireligious, the Democrats' newfound faithiness faces big challenges.

If religious nones congeal into a coherent voting bloc with their own issues, Democrats will have to pay more attention to their political agenda. Most religious nones aren't hostile to religion; few are atheists. "They're aligning with the Democrats because the party has lots of religious people, but they're not pushy about it," says Navarro-Rivera.

At the same time, religious nones aren't crazy about a huge role for religion in government and politics. And as their numbers grow, some expect them to turn more overtly antireligious. Will they continue to tolerate a party leader who invites Rick Warren to his inauguration and who refuses to decide whether religious groups can hire based on religion with government funds? Doubtful.

Satellite reveals faster melting of polar ice

Satellite reveals faster melting of polar ice

David Perlman, Chronicle Science Editor

Thursday, September 24, 2009
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A NASA satellite has revealed more accurately than ever that polar ice in Antarctica and Greenland is melting from glaciers and ice sheets far faster than scientists had previously thought, a discovery that one UC Berkeley climate expert calls "ominous and distressing."
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Using a laser aboard an orbiting spacecraft that precisely measures minute changes in the thickness of glaciers and ice sheets, scientists with the British Antarctic Survey calculate that along the coast of West Antarctica's Amundsen Sea, for example, the massive Pine Island glacier and two others thinned by nearly 30 feet a year from 2003 to 2007, 50 percent faster than the glacier's thinning rate between 1995 and 2003.

In Greenland, the satellite's radar has shown that 111 fast-flowing glaciers are now thinning at an average rate of nearly 3 feet a year - much more rapidly than previous estimates based on less precise instruments, according to the scientists tabulating the satellite's radar measurements.

A report on the survey's findings, published today in the journal Nature, also says glaciers on the coast of East Antarctica are thinning three times faster than scientists previously believed. Thick shelves of floating ice on the Antarctic coast, like the one named Larsen B, crumbled into the sea spectacularly in 2002 and more ice sheets are falling regularly.

Because the melting ice shelves float, they do not affect sea level any more than melting ice cubes would raise water in a glass. But as thinning glaciers flow down from dense ice caps covering the ground above, rising sea levels result.

In many areas, the report notes, glaciers are melting and thinning faster than even heavy snowfalls above would thicken them.

"Many glaciers along the margins of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are accelerating, and for this reason contribute increasingly to global sea-level rise," reported the team headed by polar physicist Hamish Pritchard.

The report concedes that the rate of sea level rise from melting glaciers in both land masses is still unpredictable, but its implication of faster-than-estimated global sea level rise in this century brought dismay to some American experts.

"This report provides a much more ominous picture than we have had, and a depressing prospect of the potential for sea level rise," Inez Fung, a noted atmospheric scientist at UC Berkeley said Wednesday. "It's very much a cause for worry."

Peter Gleick, a climate expert who directs the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment and Security in Oakland, said the findings have important implications for the planet.

"It now appears that surface ice is disappearing at a far faster rate than previously thought, which is another piece of damning evidence that climate changes will be worse and faster than we feared," Gleick said. "The results should light a fire under the delegates at the upcoming international meeting on climate change in Copenhagen."

The meeting in December will be attended by the world's climate leaders who will consider changes in the Kyoto Protocol of 1997. That treaty commits nations to limit their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States is the only industrialized country that has not ratified the treaty.

The laser, carried aboard the spacecraft ICESat - for Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite - is essentially a highly precise altimeter that bounces its beam off the surface of ice with ultra-high resolution. Earlier surveys have combined less precise radar observations and human exploration. The ICESat spacecraft was launched from California's Vandenberg Air Force base in 2003 and has made nearly 2 billion measurements as its orbit carries it over Greenland and virtually the entire continent of Antarctica.
Glacier melt

To view a depiction of a Greenland glacier melting into the sea go to:

NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

Read more:

Traces of Water Found on Moon

Traces of Water Found on Moon
Michael Barkoviak - September 24, 2009 9:00 AM

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22 comment(s) - last by docawolff.. on Sep 24 at 3:17 PM

(Source: NASA)
There could be water on the moon after all

Using data collected by three different missions studying the surface of the moon, researchers have their strongest evidence yet of possible signs of water.

"When we say 'water on the moon,' we are not talking about lakes, oceans or even puddles," according to Brown University researcher Carle Pieters. "Water on the moon means molecules of water and hydroxyl (hydrogen and oxygen) that interact with molecules of rock and dust specifically in the top millimeters of the moon's surface."

Specifically, the NASA Cassini and Deep Impact spacecraft, along with India's Chandrayaan-1, collected the most recent data. During the Apollo missions -- which took place in the 1960s and 1970s – NASA retrieved several rocks that contained minute amounts of trapped water, but the small traces were believed to be contamination from Earth.

Researchers previously believed the moon was a completely dry place, even though the dark side of the moon is cold enough to support ice. Once the dark side passes into the sunlight, however, the ice would end up evaporating quickly. It was previously believed there could be liquid water found at the moon's poles, but there could be much wetter areas at several select locations away from the poles.

Researchers from the University of Maryland, Brown University, U.S. Geological Survey, and international scientists are looking into other places that could be wet. Water is important as space nations show continued interest in lunar bases -- though transporting water and supplies are major issues -- but the ability to filter water and grow crops would make it even more feasible to survive on the moon.


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